Reports and studies

Second Chance Reforms in 2017
Roundup of new expungement and restoration Laws

Forgiving and Forgetting in American Justice
A 50-State Guide to Expungement and Restoration of Rights

Four Years of Second Chance Reforms, 2013 – 2016
Restoration of Rights & Relief from Collateral Consequences


Ban the Box: U.S. Cities, Counties, and States Adopt Fair Hiring Policies

Continuously updated report by the National Employment Law Project

Nonviolent Drug Convictions: Stakeholders’ Views on Potential Actions to Address Collateral Consequences

2017 report by the U.S. Government Accountability Office

Criminal Background Checks and Access to Jobs: A Case Study of Washington, DC

2017 report by the Urban Institute

Criminal Background Checks: Impact on Employment and Recidivism

2017 report by the Urban Institute

Back to Business: How Hiring Formerly Incarcerated Job Seekers Benefits Your Company

2017 report by the American Civil Liberties Union

Ban the Box and Racial Discrimination: A Review of the Evidence and Policy Recommendations

2017 report by the Urban Institute

Collateral Consequences: Protecting Public Safety or Encouraging Recidivism?

2017 report by the Heritage Foundation

Unmarked? Criminal Record Clearing and Employment Outcomes

Jeffrey Selbin, Justin McCrary & Joshua Epstein, 108 J. Crim. L. & Criminology No. 1       (2017)

Helping Moms, Dads, and Kids Come Home: Eliminating Barriers to Housing for People with Criminal Records

2016 report by National H.I.R.E. Network

The Price We Pay: Economic Costs of Barriers to Employment for Former Prisoners and People Convicted of Felonies

2016 report by the Center for Economic and Policy Research

Putting Time Limits on the Punitiveness of the Criminal Justice System

2016 policy memo by Anne Morrison Piehl of The Hamilton Project 

Disenfranchised by Debt: Millions Impoverished by Prison, Blocked from Voting

2016 report by Alliance for a Just Society

6 Million Lost Voters: State-Level Estimates of Felony Disenfranchisement, 2016

2016 report by the Sentencing Project

Racial Profiling in Hiring: A Critique of New “Ban the Box” Studies

2016 policy brief by the National Employment Law Project 

Ensuring Fairness in Background Checks for On-Demand Work

2016 policy brief by the National Employment Law Project

Justice in Review: New Trends in State Sentencing and Corrections 2014 – 2015

2016 report by the Vera Institute of Justice discussing collateral consequence relief mechanisms.

Beyond the Box: Increasing Access to Higher Education for Justice-Involved Individuals

2016 report by the U.S. Department of Education

Unlicensed and Untapped: Removing Barriers to State Occupational Licenses for People with Criminal Records

2016 report by the National Employment Law Project

Future Interrupted: The Collateral Damage Caused by Proliferation of Juvenile Records

2016 report by the Juvenile Law Center

Jobs After Jail: Ending the prison to poverty pipeline

2016 report by the Alliance for a Just Society

Removing Barriers to Opportunity for Parents With Criminal Records and Their Children: A Two Generation Approach

2015 report by the Center for American Progress

Boxed Out: Criminal History Screening and College Application Attrition

2015 report by  the Center for Community Alternatives in cooperation with the Education from the Inside Out Coalition

The State of Sentencing 2014: Developments in Policy and Practice

2015 report by The Sentencing Project

Advancing a Federal Fair Chance Hiring Agenda: Background Check Reforms in Over 100 Cities, Counties, & States Pave the Way for Presidential Action

2015 report by the National Employment Law Project (NELP)

National Summit on Collateral Consequences – Conference Report

2015 report by the ABA Criminal Justice Section

Report of House Judiciary Committee hearing on collateral consequences

U.S. House of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary, Over-Criminalization Task Force (2014)

Collateral Damage: America’s Failure to Forgive or Forget in the War on Crime — A Roadmap to Restore Rights and Status After Arrest or Conviction

2014 report of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers

One Strike and You’re Out: How We Can Eliminate Barriers to Economic Security and Mobility for People with Criminal Records

2014 report by Rebecca Vallas and Sharon Dietrich published by the Center for American Progress

Relief in Sight? States Rethink the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction, 2009 – 2014

2014 report by The Vera Institute of Justice

Failed Policies, Forfeited Futures: A Nationwide Scorecard on Juvenile Records

2014 report on expungement and confidentiality from the Juvenile Law Center

Juvenile Records: A National Review of State Laws on Confidentiality, Sealing, and Expungement

2014 report from the Juvenile Law Center

Raised on the Registry: The Irreparable Harm of Placing Children on Sex Offender Registries in the U.S.

2013 report by Human Rights Watch

65 Million “Need Not Apply”:  The Case for Reforming Criminal Background Checks for Employment

2011 report by Michelle Natividad Rodriguez & Maurice Emsellem, National Employment Law Project

The Use of Criminal Records in College Admissions Reconsidered

2010 report of the Center for Community Alternatives

Second Chances in the Criminal Justice System: Alternatives to Incarceration and Reentry Strategies

2008 report by the ABA Commission on Effective Criminal Sanctions

NO SECOND CHANCE: People with Criminal Records Denied Access to Public Housing

2004 report by Corinne Carey for Human Rights Watch

>> See also Compilations & inventories of collateral consequences << 

Related blog posts:

  • New report: Roundup of 2017 expungement and restoration laws (12/14/2017) - A new report from the Collateral Consequences Resource Center shows that states across the country are continuing to expand opportunities to avoid or mitigate the adverse effects of a criminal record.  If anything, the trend first documented last winter in Four Years of Second Chance Reforms, 2013 – 2016 has accelerated in 2017.  Second Chance Reforms in 2017 identifies 23 states, [...]
  • New report: 50-state guide to expungement and restoration of rights (10/12/2017) - CCRC is pleased to announce the publication of its 50-state guide to expungement and restoration of rights: “Forgiving and Forgetting in American Justice.” This report catalogues and analyzes the various provisions for relief from the collateral consequences of conviction that are now operating in each state, including judicial record-sealing and certificates of relief, executive pardon, and administrative.  Its goal is to [...]
  • Preview of 50-state report on effective relief mechanisms (8/17/2017) - The Collateral Consequences Resource Center is currently finalizing a 50-state report on the availability of relief from the adverse civil effects of a criminal arrest or conviction. Using research from the Restoration of Rights Project (RRP), the report analyzes the data in several different categories, including executive pardon, judicial record-closing and certificates, and regulation of employment and licensing.  It showcases those [...]
  • “Back to Business” – A report on fair chance hiring policies (6/13/2017) - A new report examines successful efforts by corporations and government leaders to promote “fair chance” hiring policies for people with criminal histories.  Back to Business: How Hiring Formerly Incarcerated Job Seekers Benefits Your Company reviews the latest research on the effect of a criminal record on employment interviews and on the job performance of workers with such records.  The report summary [...]
  • Restrictions on access to criminal records: A national survey (3/9/2017) - We have recently revised and brought up to date the 50-state chart comparing laws on judicial sealing and expungement.  This chart provides an overview of the national landscape of laws authorizing courts to restrict public access to criminal records.  The chart summaries are illustrated by color-coded maps, and explained in greater detail in the state “profiles” of relief mechanisms that [...]
  • New research report: Four Years of Second Chance Reforms, 2013-2016 (2/8/2017) - Introduction Since 2013, almost every state has taken at least some steps to chip away at the negative effects of a criminal record on an individual’s ability to earn a living, access housing, education and public benefits, and otherwise fully participate in civil society.  It has not been an easy task, in part because of the volume and complexity of [...]
  • Housing restrictions across the country (12/14/2016) - The revolving door between prison and homelessness is an unfortunate and well-documented feature of our criminal justice system. But it is not just those returning from prison who are at risk. Even a conviction for a relatively minor offense – and, in some instances, simply being charged with one – can result in a lifetime of housing insecurity, both for individuals [...]
  • “Racial profiling in hiring: A critique of new ban-the-box studies” (8/17/2016) - In June we covered two recent studies that concluded ban-the-box policies tend to decrease minority hiring because some employers use race as a proxy for criminal history.  In other words, in the absence of information about applicants’ criminal history, some employers assume that minority applicants have a record and exclude them on this assumption.  The result is that ban-the-box policies increase opportunities for whites [...]
  • New reports document federal progress on collateral consequences (8/16/2016) - The Presidential Memorandum that formally established the Reentry Council in April 2016 mandated a report documenting the Council’s accomplishments to date and plans moving forward.  The resulting report, The Federal Interagency Reentry Council: A Record of Progress and a Roadmap for the Future, was issued today. Also today the White House issued a fact sheet with new commitments to the [...]
  • Feds nudge colleges to go “beyond the box” (5/12/2016) - The Department of Education (DOE) is asking colleges and universities to reconsider the use of criminal record inquiries on admissions applications in a new report released on Monday. The report, Beyond the Box: Increasing Access to Higher Education for Justice-Involved Individuals, looks at how broad inquiries into applicants’ criminal histories may deter people with criminal records from applying for post-secondary educational opportunities.  It [...]
  • State licensing laws unfairly restrict opportunities for people with criminal records (4/28/2016) - States are falling short when it comes to making occupational licensing opportunities available to people with criminal records. This is according to a report released this week by the National Employment Law Project (NELP).  Unlicensed & Untapped: Removing Barriers to State Occupational Licenses for People with Criminal Records examines the licensing laws of 40 states, and grades each state based on a number [...]
  • Federal sentencing and collateral consequences (4/15/2016) - This practice resource is available in PDF format here.  A follow-up piece, “Federal sentencing and collateral consequences II,” is here.   Federal courts are frequently asked to take into account the collateral consequences of conviction in determining what sentence to impose under the criteria in 18 U.S.C. § 3553(a). It is generally permissible for them to do so, and in line with current [...]
  • “Get to Work or Go to Jail” (4/6/2016) - A new report from the UCLA Labor Center with the snappy title of  “Get To Work or Go To Jail” describes how the criminal justice system may compromise employment opportunities in more ways than one, placing workers on community supervision or in debt at the mercy of employers.  Noah Zatz of the UCLA Law faculty, one of the report’s co-authors, [...]
  • Restoration of firearms rights: 50-state surveys (3/14/2016) - We have recently converted the 50-state surveys that are part of the Restoration of Rights Resource from PDF to HTML format.  Two of these surveys deal with loss and restoration of firearms privileges as a result of a criminal conviction:  Chart # 1 is titled “Loss and restoration of civil rights and firearms privileges,” and Chart # 2 is “State [...]
  • “Future Interrupted”: The collateral damage of juvenile adjudications (3/4/2016) - 1.5 million children are arrested each year. At some point in each of these children’s lives, the record of their arrest or court involvement will impose barriers to education and employment.  At least two-thirds of post-secondary institutions conduct background checks of prospective students. More than 90% of employers conduct background checks. And, many licensed occupations and professions require FBI background [...]
  • New York Bar adopts reentry recommendations (2/12/2016) - In 2012 newly elected President of the New York State Bar Association (NYSBA), Seymour James, Jr., drew upon his 38 years of experience at the Legal Aid Society of New York City to establish a Special Committee on Reentry and appointed committee members who would spend the next three years researching and studying issues relating to reentry and reintegration. The [...]
  • How a parent’s criminal record limits children (1/6/2016) - “The barriers associated with having a criminal record do not just result in lifelong punishment for the parent with the record; they also can significantly limit a child’s life chances.” This is according to a new report by the Center for American Progress that examines the multi-generational effects of collateral consequences and the cycle of poverty and lost opportunity that [...]
  • White House criticizes occupational licensing restrictions (9/15/2015) - Occupational licensing requirements pose more of a barrier to employment than ever before, and perhaps no group of the population has been more affected by these barriers than people with criminal histories.  About 25% of the country’s workforce is now employed in a field that requires a state occupational license, and many of these licenses take criminal history into account for [...]
  • 50-state survey of relief from sex offender registration (5/14/2015) - We have prepared a new 50-state chart detailing the provisions for termination of the obligation to register as a sex offender in each state and under federal law.  This project was inspired by Wayne Logan’s recent article in the Wisconsin Law Review titled “Database Infamia: Exit from the Sex Offender Registries,” discussed on this site on April 15.  The original idea [...]
  • Is suspension of driving privileges an effective way to collect unpaid fines? (4/21/2015) - No, according to a recent study of efforts to enforce monetary judgments in a Milwaukee municipal court and to a national organization with expertise in traffic safety. The Justice Initiative Institute reviewed non-criminal, municipal cases from 2008-2013 in which the Milwaukee court had ordered the detention of defendants for not having paid fines. Not surprisingly, the report shows that most [...]