50-State Comparison: Loss & Restoration of Civil/Firearms Rights

  • Section 1 provides a chart concerning voting, jury service, and public office, as well as firearms rights under state law.
  • Section 2 provides a chart concerning firearms rights under federal law.
  • Section 3 provides state-by-state summaries, with links to more detailed analysis and legal citations.

1.  Voting, Jury Service, Public Office & State Law on Firearms

*Note: this first chart covers firearms disabilities under state law.
A second chart below covers firearms disabilities under federal law.

Updated: May 2020 

StateVoteJury ServicePublic Office*Firearms Rights Under State Law
ALAny felony involving "moral turpitude," as defined with regard to specific offenses by Ala. Code. § 17-3-30.1; restored by administrative process or pardon, requiring payment of court debt. Ala. Const. art. VIII, § 177; Ala. Code § 15-22-36.1.Any felony involving "moral turpitude;" restored by pardon. Ala. Code §§ 12-16-60(a)(4); 15-22-36(c).Any felony involving "moral turpitude;" restored by pardon. . Ala. Code § 36-2-1;see Ala. Code § 15-22-36.1(a)(1), (3). Handgun rights lost upon conviction of "crime of violence;" restored by pardon. Ala. Code. §§ 13A-11-70(1), 13A-11-72; State ex rel. Sokira v. Burr, 580 So. 2d 1340, 1345 (Ala. 1991).
AKAny felony; restored upon completion of sentence. Alaska Stat. §§ 09.20.020; 15.05.030(a); 33.30.241.Same as vote. Alaska Stat. §§ 09.20.020; 15.05.030(a); 33.30.241.Same as vote. Alaska Stat. §§ 09.20.020; 15.05.030(a); 33.30.241; e.g., Alaska Stat. §§ 15.25.030(10), 39.05.100. Concealable weapon rights lost for ten years for non-violent felonies; otherwise permanent, restored by pardon. Alaska Stat. §§ 11.61.200(a)(1),(b)(1).
AZAny felony; restored for first offenders upon discharge if restitution paid (no longer fine), recidivists and those who have not paid restitution by set-aside or pardon. Ariz. Const. art. V, § 5, art. VII, § 2(C), Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 13-904(A)(1), 13-907, 13-908, 13-912, 16-101(A)(5). Federal offenders eligible, but not out-of-state. Same as vote. Ariz. Const. art. V, § 5, Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 13-904(A)(3), 13-906, 13-908, 13-912. Same as vote. Ariz. Const. art. V, § 5, Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 13-904(A)(2), 13-906, 13-908, 13-912. All firearms rights lost for felony conviction; may be regained from the court through a set-aside, if the conviction was for a non-violent offense, or from the court two years after discharge. Persons convicted of a “dangerous offense” must wait ten years. May also be regained through a pardon if pardon document so specifies. Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 13-905; 13-910. See also Ariz. Admin. Code § R5-4-101(6).
ARAny felony; restored upon completion of sentence, including payment of fines and restitution. Ark. Const. art. III, §§ 1. Any felony; restored by pardon. Ark. Code Ann. § 16-31-102(a)(4).Any malfeasance in office; restored by expungement. Ark. Const. art. V, § 9; Ark. Code. Ann. §§ 16-93-301 et seq. All firearms rights lost for felony conviction; restored by expungement or pardon. Ark Code. Ann. § 5-73-103; see also Irvin v. State, 784 S.W.2d 763 (Ark. 1990).
CAAny felony if sentenced to a prison term; restored upon completion of prison sentence, including parole. Cal. Const. art. II, § 4; Cal. Elec. § 2101. Those serving a community supervision sentence, or (effective Jan. 2017) a term in county jail may vote. Cal. Elec. § 2101.Any felony or malfeasance in office; effective 2019 restored upon completion of sentence including supervision. Cal. Const. art. V, § 8(a); Cal. Civ. Proc. § 203(a)(5) (2019). Any malfeasance in office, restored by pardon. Cal. Const. art. V, § 8(a); Cal. Civ. Proc. § 203(a)(5). Cal. Penal §§ 4800, 4812 - 13. All firearms rights lost for felony and misdemeanor involving use of firearm; restored by pardon expressly restoring firearm rights. Felony reduction pursuant to penal code section 17(b) may restore firearm rights in certain cases. Certain misdemeanor offenses, may result in loss for 10 years. Cal. Penal §§ 12021(a), 4852.17.
COAny felony if sentenced to imprisonment; restored upon "serving out his full term of imprisonment" but no longer including parole. Colo. Const. art. 7, § 10. Not lost.Any felony while incarcerated or on parole; restored upon completion of sentence. Col. Rev. Stat. § 18-1.3-401(3).All firearms rights for felony, restored by pardon. Col. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-108(1), (2).
CTAny felony if sentenced to imprisonment; restored upon discharge, including completion of parole, and For federal and out-of-state convictions also requires payment of "all fines." Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 9-46(a), 9-46a(a), (b), Also lost while on probation for election law violation. Any felony; automatically restored 7 years after conviction (unless the individual still incarcerated). Conn. Gen. Stat. § 51-217(a)(2).Same as vote. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 9-46(a),Handgun rights for felony convictions and "serious juvenile offenses"; restored by pardon. Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 29-28(b), 29-32; see also §§ 53a-217(a), 29-36f(b).
DEAny felony, misdemeanor election law offenses; restored upon expiration of sentence for most felonies and after 10 yrs for election law misdemeanors. Some felonies (e.g., murder, sex offenses) restored only by pardon. Del. Const. art. V, §§ 2,7, Del. Code Ann. tit. 15, §§ 1701, 6103-05. Any felony; restored by pardon. Del. Code Ann. tit. 10, § 4509(b)(6). Any "infamous crime" as determined by a court; cannot be automatically restored by pardon or otherwise. Del. Const. art. II, § 21, art. XV, § 6; see Del. Code. Ann. tit. 11, § 4364. All firearms rights for any felony and crimes of violence, drug offenses, and domestic violence crimes; restored only by pardon. Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, §§ 1448(a)(1), (3), (7); see also Del. Op. Att'y Gen. 03-IB04, 2003 WL 1088725 (Feb. 4, 2003). Bar for non-felonies lasts only five years. § 1448(d).
DCAny felony and certain misdemeanor election law violations while incarcerated; restored upon release D.C. Mun. Regs. tit. 3, § 500.3; D.C. Code §§ 1-1001.14, 1-1105.07. Any felony; can be restored one year after completion of sentence after certain certification procedures. D.C. Code. § 11-1906(b)(2)(B).Same as vote. D.C. Code § 1-204.02.All firearms rights for certain classes of sex offenders, crimes of violence, and weapons offenses; lost for five years for drug offenses or crimes involving threats of bodily harm. D.C. Code § 7-2502.03. Otherwise restored by pardon.
FLAny felony; restored automatically upon completion of sentence (including payment of financial obligations), ex. for murder and felony sex offenses. Fla. Const. art. VI, § 4. Any felony; restored by pardon or restoration of rights 5 years after discharge (7 years for serious offenses). Fla. Stat. § 40.013. Any felony; restored by pardon or restoration of rights 5 years after discharge (7 years for serious offenses). Fla. Const. art. VI, § 4; Fla. Stat. ch. 944.292(1). All firearms rights for felony convictions; restored by pardon after 8-year eligibility waiting period. Fla. Stat. §§ 790.001(6), 790.23(1).
GAAny felony involving moral turpitude; restored upon completion of sentence, including payment of fines and restitution. Ga. Const. art. II, § 1, para. III(a). Any felony involving moral turpitude; restored by pardon, or restoration 10 years after discharge. 1983 Ga. Op. Att'y Gen. 69 (No. 83-33), 1983 WL 41667 (May 27, 1983). Any felony involving moral turpitude; restored by pardon or by restoration of civil rights. Ga. Const. art. II, § 2, para. III. All firearms rights for felonies; first offenders may apply for a license 10 years after discharge, five years for deferred adjudication, otherwise by pardon. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-131(b)-(c).
HIAny felony while actually incarcerated; restored upon release. Haw. Rev. Stat. § 831-2(a)(1).Any felony; restored upon completion of sentence. Haw. Rev. Stat. § 612-4(b)(2).Any felony: restored by pardon. Haw. Rev. Stat § 831-5.All firearms rights for felonies, crimes involving drugs or violence; relief by pardon. Haw. Rev. Stat. § 134-7(a), (b), (d); cf. Haw. Op. Att'y. Gen. No. 81-12, 1981 WL 37235 (1981).
IDAny felony if sentence of custody is imposed; restored upon completion of custody sentence, including any period of parole. Idaho Code Ann. § 18-310(1).Same as vote. Idaho Code Ann. § 18-310(1).Same as vote. Idaho Code Ann. § 18-310(1).rights lost only while under sentence except for violent crimes, which are restored by pardon 5 years after discharge. Idaho Code Ann. §§ 18-310(1)?(3), 18-3316(4).
ILAny felony while actually incarcerated; restored upon release. Ill. Const. art. III, § 2. Not lost.Any felony; restored upon discharge for state-wide offices (except election fraud); by pardon for other offenses. Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. §§ 5/5-5-5(b).All firearms rights for felonies, some juvenile adjudications. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. § 5/24-1.1(a). Restored by state police or by court, after 20 years in the case of violent offenses, or by pardon. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 65/10.
INAny "infamous crime" while actually incarcerated; restored upon release. Ind. Const. art. 2, § 8. Same as vote. Ind. Code § 33-28-5-18.Any felony; court may include 10-year ban for misdemeanor bribery or other misconduct; restored by pardon. Ind. Code § 3-8-1-5(c)(3), 35-50-5-1.1(a). Handgun rights lost for any felony conviction or domestic battery conviction; can be restored by state police 15 years after offense or by pardon. Ind. Code §§ 35-47-2-3(g)(1), 35-47-2-1(c), 35-47-4-7, 35-47-2-20.
IAAny "infamous crime" (a crime punishable by imprisonment); restored by gubernatorial restoration of rights or pardon. Iowa Const. art II, § 5; see Iowa Code §§ 48A.30(d), 914.2. Federal and out-of state offenders eligible for his relief, and they may also regain rights in jurisdiction of conviction. Not lost, but conviction may be basis for challenge. Iowa R. Civ. P. 1.915(6)(a), 2.18(5)(a). Same as vote. Iowa Const. art II, § 5; Iowa Code §§ 48A.30(d), 914.2. All firearms rights for any felony; restored by pardon or gubernatorial restoration of rights after 5 years; no restoration for forcible felonies or firearms offenses. Iowa Code §§ 724.26, 724.8(4), 724.15(1)(b), § 724.27, 914.7.
KSAny felony; restored upon completion of sentence, including payment of court debt. Kan. Stat. Ann. §§ 21-6613(a), 21-6613(b). Lost for a minimum of 10 years after conviction. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 43-158(c). Otherwise same as vote. § 21-6613(b). Same as vote. Kan. Stat. Ann. §§ 21-6613(b). All firearms rights for a "person felony" or drug offense involving weapon; 5-yr or 10-yr restrictions for other person felonies; 10-yr restriction for other felonies involving firearm. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6304(a).
KYAny felony; restored by gubernatorial restoration of rights, requiring payment of fines and fees. Ky. Const. § 145(1); Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 27A.070. Effective 2016, set-aside and expungement of Class D felonies also restores. § 431.078. Misdemeanants may not vote while in prison. Ky. Const. § 145(2). Effective December 2019, vote automatically restored upon completion of sentence to all but most serious offenders by executive order, with no requirement to pay court debt. Any felony; restored by pardon or gubernatorial restoration of rights. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 29A.080(2)(e).Any felony; like vote, restored by executive order to most offenders after completion of sentence; otherwise by pardon or gubernatorial restoration of rights. Ky. Const. § 150.All firearms rights for felonies after 1994 (handguns only for convictions between 1975 and 1994); restored by pardon. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 527.040(1); Posey v. Commonwealth, 185 S.W.3d 170, 181 (Ky. 2006).
LAAny felony if "under an order of imprisonment," including suspended sentences, parole; restored upon completion of sentence. La. Const. art. I, §§ 10, 20. Effective March 2019, vote restored five years after release from incarceration. Any felony; loss is permanent. La. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 401(A)(5); State v. Haynes, 514 So. 2d 1206 (La. App. 2d Cir. 1987).Eligibility for elective office not lost. See Shepherd v. Schedler, No. 2015-CA-1750 (La. 2015). Automatic removal for felony in office. La. R.S. § 42:1411.All firearms rights for any crime of violence, felony drug offense, or sex offense; restored by pardon, or automatically 10 years after discharge. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 14:95.1(c). Concealed handguns separately regulated. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(C)(10).
MENot lost.Not lost.Not lost.All firearms rights lost for any felony; restored by pardon. Black powder gun 5 yrs after discharge. Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 15, § 393(1), (2).
MDAny felony, only while incarcerated (except for vote fraud, which requires a pardon). Md. Code Ann., Election Law § 3-102(b). Any conviction with a prison sentence exceeding one year, or charged with a crime punishable by a sentence exceeding one year; restored by pardon. Md. Code Ann., Courts and Judicial Proceedings § 8-103(b)(4), (c).Ineligible if convicted while in office; eligibility regained when restored to the franchise. Md. Const. art. I, § 12. All firearms rights for any felony or violent crime, or serious misdemeanor; restored by pardon. Md. Code Ann., Criminal Law § 5-622; Public Safety § 5-133; 01(c), (g), 5-133(b)(1), (2).
MAAny felony only while incarcerated. Mass. Const. Amend. art. 3.Any felony, restored 7 yrs after discharge; misdemeanors while incarcerated. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 234A, § 4(7). Forfeiture of office if imprisoned while in office, otherwise not lost. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 279, § 30. All firearms rights for felony or serious misdemeanor; long gun rights restored after 5 yrs except for drugs or violence (pardon). Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, §§ 131(d)(i), 129B(1).
MIAny felony or misdemeanor only while incarcerated. Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.758b.Permanent disqualification unless conviction is pardoned or expunged. Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.1307a(1)(e).Loss for offenses involving public corruption, restoration varies upon offense, bribery loss permanent. See, e.g., Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.118. All firearms rights lost for felony for 3 years; violent or drug offenders must wait 5 years. Earlier restoration by pardon or expungement. Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.224f(1).
MNAny felony; restored upon discharge. Minn. Const. art. VII, § 1; Minn. Stat. § 609.165, subd. 1. Same as vote. Minn. Const. art. VII, § 1; Minn. Stat. § 609.165, subd. 1. Same as vote. Minn. Const. art. VII, § 1; Minn. Stat. § 609.165, subd. 1. All firearms rights lost for felony, restored upon discharge. Crimes involving drugs or violence must apply to court or for pardon. See Minn. Stat. §§ 609.165, subd. 1, 624.712, subd. 5.
MSAny state crime listed in constitution; restored by pardon or act of legislature. Miss. Const. art. 12, § 241, art. 5, § 124. "Infamous crimes" defined as any crime punishable by death or imprisonment; restored five years after conviction. Miss. Code Ann. §§ 13-5-1; 1-3-19.Lost for certain specified felonies (bribery, burglary, theft, arson etc.); restored only by pardon. Miss. Const. art. 12, § 241, art. 5, § 124. All firearms rights lost for any felony conviction; restored by pardon or by petition to court. Miss. Code Ann. § 97-37-5(1),
MOAny felony; restored upon completion of sentence, which includes payment of court debt. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 115.133.2.Any felony; restored only by pardon. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 561.026(3); id. § 494.425(4).Any felony or conviction of misconduct in office; restored upon completion of sentence. Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 115.133.2, 561.021.2; 561.021.3. All firearms rights (excluding antique weapons) for any felony; restored by pardon, Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.070.1(1), or by expungement. § 610.140.
MTAny felony while actually incarcerated. Mont. Const. art. IV, § 2.Any felony; restored upon completion of sentence. Mont. Code Ann. §§ 3-15-303(2), 46-18-801(2). Any felony; restored upon completion of sentence. Mont. Const. art. IV, § 4. All firearms rights if conviction involves dangerous weapon; restored by pardon or petition to court. Mont. Code Ann. §§ 45-8-313(1), 45-8-314(2)(a).
NEAny felony; restored automatically 2 yrs after discharge. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-112.Any felony; restored automatically after discharge for non-prison sentence, otherwise after hearing by Board of Pardons. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-112. Same as jury. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-112.All firearms rights lost for felony conviction, restored by pardon. Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 28-1206(1)-(2), 83-1,130(2).
NVAny felony. Effective 2019, loss of vote only during actual incarceration, replacing complicated system in which right to vote and manner of restoration depended upon seriousness of offense, Nev. Const. art. 2, § 1; id. art. 15, § 3; Nev. Rev. Stat. 213.157. Any felony. Civil jury right restored upon discharge from probation or parole, or upon release from incarceration if no parole term served. Criminal jury rights regained 6 years after discharge from probation or parole or release from prison. Nev. Const. art. 2, § 1; id. art. 15, § 3; Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 176A.850; 213.155; 213.157. Any felony while actually incarcerated, regained 4 yrs after release. Nev. Const. art. 2, § 1; id. art. 15, § 3; Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 176A.850; 213.155; 213.157, All firearms rights lost for any felony; restored by sentencing court, the Board of Parole Commissioners, or Board of Pardons. Nev. Rev. Stat. § 202.360(1)(a).
NHAny felony if actually incarcerated; restored upon release. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 607-A:2(I).Any felony which has not been annulled. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 500-A:7-a(V).Any felony if actually incarcerated; restored upon release. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 607-A:2(I).All firearms rights lost for felonies "against the person or property of another" or involving drugs; restored by judicial annulment for nonviolent offenses, otherwise by pardon. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 159:3; 4:23, 651:5.
NJLost only while actually incarcerated for an indictable offense. N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2C:51-3, 19:4-1(8). If imposed by court for violation of election law, also restricted to period of incarceration. Id. §§ 19:4-1(6), (7). Lost upon conviction for any crime that is not a petty offense; restored only by pardon or restoration of rights by governor. N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2B:20-1(e).Office forfeited upon conviction of serious crime; permanent disqualification if offense involves office. N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2C:51-2(a), 2C:51-2(d). All firearms rights for specified violent crimes, handguns for felonies or domestic violence offenses; restored by gubernatorial restoration or pardon. N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2C:39-7; 2A:167-5.
NMAny felony; restored upon completion of sentence, which includes payment of court debt. N.M. Const. art. VII, § 1; N.M. Stat. Ann. § 31-13-1(A). Any felony; restored upon completion of sentence. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 38-5-1,Any felony; restored by pardon. N.M. Const. art. VII, § 2; N.M. Stat. Ann § 31-13-1(E). All firearms rights for any felony conviction for ten years after completion of sentence; restored by pardon. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 30-7-16(A).
NYAny felony if sentenced to a term of actual imprisonment; restored upon discharge, including parole. See N.Y. Elec. Law § 5-106(2). By executive order (Cuomo) parolees may regain vote by conditional pardon. Any felony; restored by governor's pardon. N.Y. Jud. Law § 510(3).Forfeiture and disqualification depends upon offense and office. N.Y. Pub. Off. Law § 30(1)(e); Op. Att'y Gen. 83-60 (1983).All firearms rights lost for any felony or "serious offense;" restored by pardon or Certificate of Good Conduct. N.Y. Penal Law §§ 400.00(1)(c), 265.01(4).
NCAny felony; restored upon completion of sentence, including payment of court debt. N.C. Const. art. VI, §§ 2(3), 13-1. Same as vote. N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 9-3, 13-1.Same as vote. N.C. Const. art. VI, §§ 8, 13-1. All firearms rights lost for most felonies; restored by court for non-violent first offenders after 20 yrs, or by pardon. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-415.1.
NDAny felony while actually incarcerated; restored upon release. N.D. Cent. Code §§ 12.1-33-01, 12.1-33-03(1). Same as vote, except for certain offenses. N.D. Cent. Code §§ 12.1-33-01, 12.1-33-03(1); see § 27-09.1-08(2)(e). Same as vote. N.D. Cent. Code §§ 12.1-33-01, 12.1-33-03(1). All firearms rights lost for 10 yrs. for violent felonies, 5 yrs. for other felonies and serious misdemeanors. Earlier restoration from court after discharge; otherwise by pardon. N.D. Cent. Code § 62.1-02-01(1)(a), (b); § 62.1-02-01.1.
OHAny felony while actually incarcerated; restored upon release. Ohio Rev. Code § 2961.01(A).Any felony, restored upon completion of sentence. Ohio Rev. Code § 2961.01(A). Same as jury, except disqualification may be 7 yrs or permanent where offense involves official misconduct. Ohio Rev. Code §§ 2961.01(A), 2921.43(E). Firearms rights lost only for felony crimes of violence and drug offenses; restored by court upon application after completion of sentence. See Ohio Rev. Code §§ 2923.13(A)(2)-(3), 2923.14.
OKAny felony; restored upon completion of term of sentence, not including payment of court debt. 26 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 4-101(1).Any felony; restored by pardon. 38 Okla. Stat. Ann.§ 28(C)(5).For any felony and misdemeanors involving embezzlement; restored 15 years after discharge or pardon. 26 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 5-105a(A), (B). Concealed weapons rights for felony offenses; restoration for non-violent convictions by full pardon. 21 Okla. Stat. Ann. §§ 1283(A), 1283(B), amended by 2012 Okla. Sess. Laws ch. 259, § 9 (S.B. 1733) (effective Nov. 1, 2012).
ORAny felony while actually incarcerated; restored upon release. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 137.281(1), (3). Same as vote. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 137.281(1), (3). Same as vote. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 137.281(1), (3). All firearms rights lost for any felony; restored 15 years after discharge for first offenses except those involving homicide or weapons; otherwise by pardon, expungement or judicial restoration one year after completion of sentence. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.270(4)(a), 166.274.
PAAny offense while actually incarcerated. 25 Pa. Cons. Stat. §§ 2602(w), 3146.1; United States v. Essig, 10 F.3d 968 (3d Cir. 1993); 1974 Pa. Op. Att'y Gen. No. 47 (Sept. 11, 1974). Any crime punishable by more than one year; restored only by pardon. 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 4502(a)(3).Any felony; restored by pardon. Pa. Const. art. II, § 7.Firearms rights lost for specified felony offenses (usually involving violence), drug crimes, and three or more DUIs within 5 yrs, domestic violence, and other specified offenses; restoration from court 10 years after discharge. See 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. §§ 6105(a) ?(d).
PRAny felony; restored upon discharge. P.R. Const. art. II, § 12; 1960 P.R. Op. Sec'y Justice No. 33.Same as vote. P.R. Const. art. II, § 12; 1960 P.R. Op. Sec'y Justice No. 33.Same as vote. P.R. Const. art. II, § 12; 1960 P.R. Op. Sec'y Justice No. 33.All firearms rights lost for any felony conviction; restored by executive pardon or judicial expungement. P.R. Const. art. IV, § 4; P.R. Laws Ann. tit. 25, § 456j, tit. 34, § 1725a-1 et seq.
RIAny felony while actually incarcerated; restored upon release. R.I. Const. art. II, § 1.Any felony; restored upon completion of sentence. R.I. Gen. Laws § 9-9-1.1(c).Any felony or misdemeanor resulting in six months' jail; restored 3 yrs after discharge or by pardon. R.I. Const. art. III, § 2, art. IX, § 13; R.I. Gen. Laws § 13-10-1. Firearms rights lost for "crime of violence"; restoration to felony domestic violence after two years, otherwise by pardon. R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-5(a)?(c).
SCAny felony or violation of election laws, misdemeanor if sentenced to prison; restored upon completion of sentence. S.C. Code Ann. §§ 7-5-120(B)(2), (B)(3). Any felony; restored by pardon. S.C. Code Ann. §§ 14-7-810(1), 24-21-920. Any felony or violation of election laws, misdemeanants sentenced to prison; restored upon discharge. S.C. Const.. art. XVII, § 1; S.C. Code Ann. § 7-5-12(B)(3). Restoration after embezzlement of public funds by 2/3 vote of the General Assembly. § 16-13-210. Handgun rights lost upon conviction for a "crime of violence" (including serious drug trafficking); restored by pardon. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-30(B); see § 16-23-10(c), Brunson v. Stewart, 547 S.E.2d 504 (S.C. Ct. App. 2001).
SDAny felony; restored upon completion of sentence, including payment of court debt. See S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-27-35.Any felony if sentenced to incarceration, including a suspended prison sentence; restored upon discharge. See S.D. Codified Laws §§ 16-13-10, 23A-27-35.By statute, same as jury; by constitution, same as vote. See S.D. Const. art. 3, § 3; S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-27-35. All firearms rights lost for any "crime of violence" and certain drug felonies; restored after 15 years with no further such convictions, or by pardon. S.D. Codified Laws § 22-14-15 (amended by 2005 S.D. Sess. Laws 120); see also § 22-1-2(9) (defining crime of violence).
TNAny felony; restored upon discharge (including payment of court debt) except for serious violence or voter fraud. Tenn. Const. art. I, § 5; Tenn. Code. Ann. §§ 40-20-112, 40-29-202(a), 203(a), 40-29-204. Any felony; restored by application to the court. Tenn. Code Ann § 22-1-102.Any felony; restored by application to the court. Tenn. Code Ann. § 40-20-114. Felony and some misdemeanors forfeit handguns; violent or drug offenses forfeit all firearms rights. See Tenn. Code. Ann. §§ 39-17-1307(b)?(c). Restoration by court except violent or drug crimes. § 40-29-105; State v. Johnson, 79 S.W.3d 522, 528 (Tenn. 2002). Expungement (which may be based on pardon) restores rights, even for drug and violent crimes. § 40-32-101(g)(15).
TXAny felony; restored upon completion of sentence. Tex. Const. art. 6, § 1; Tex. Elec. Code Ann. § 11.002. Any felony and misdemeanor theft; restored by pardon. Tex. Const. art. 5, § 14.  See also Tex. Gov’t Code § 62.102(8) and (9); Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. § 48.05(a). Gubernatorial restoration of rights for federal and out-of-state first offenders. § 48.05(a) Any felony; restored by pardon or "otherwise released from resulting disabilities." Tex. Const. art. 16, § 5; Tex. Gov't Code Ann. §§ 87.031, 252.063, 406.018; Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. § 48.05(a). All firearms rights for any felony conviction; restored 5 years after completion of sentence only for the premises in which the individual lives. Tex. Penal Code § 46.04(a). Otherwise restored by pardon.
UTAny felony and election-related misdemeanors while incarcerated. See Utah Code Ann. §§ 20A-2-101(2)(b), 20A-2-101.3(2); 20A-2-101.5(2)(a), (c). Any felony; restored by expungement. Utah Code Ann § 78B-1-105(2).Any felony; restored by expungement or 10 yrs after discharge. Utah Code Ann. §§ 20A-2-101.5(3), 77-5-1, 77-6-1. All firearms rights for any felony; restored by expungement (except violent offenses) or pardon. Utah Code Ann. §§ 76-10-503(1), (2).
VTNot lost. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 28, § 807.Any felony; restored only by pardon. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 12, § 64; see Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 4, § 962(a)(5). Not lost. 3 Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 28, § 807.No firearms rights lost under state law, but court may prohibit possession of firearms as a condition of probation. See State v. Kasper, 566 A.2d 982, 984 (Vt. 1989).
VIAny crime involving prison sentence of more than 1 yr; restored by pardon. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 14, §§ 91, 471(1). Same as vote. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 14, §§ 91, 471(1). Same as vote. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 14, §§ 91, 471(1). Felony offenders ineligible for firearms license; restored by pardon. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 23,§ 456a(a)(1)
VAAny felony; restored upon completion of sentence by action of the governor. See Va. Const. art. II, § 1, art. V, § 12; Va. Code Ann. § 8.01-338 (2). Same as vote. Va. Const. art. II, § 1, art. V, § 12; Va. Code Ann. § 8.01-338 (2). Same as vote. Va. Const. art. II, § 1, art. V, § 12; Va. Code Ann. § 8.01-338 (2). Firearms rights for felonies and certain juvenile adjudications; restored by court order (if other rights restored) or pardon. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.2. Concealed handguns separately regulated. See Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.9.
WA Any felony; provisionally restored when no longer in custody; permanently upon discharge by court or executive restoration. Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.04.079,§ 9.92.066, 94A.637, 9.96.020. State v. Collins, 124 P. 903 (Wa. 1912). Any felony; restored upon discharge by court or executive restoration. Wash. Rev. Code § 2.36.070(5), 9.94A.637(5), 9.94A.885(2). Same as jury. Wash. Rev. Code §§ 9.94A.637(5), 9.94A.885(2), 42.04.020. All firearms rights for violent, drug or sex offenses; restored by pardon, or by court order after waiting period based on a finding of rehabilitation. Wash. Rev. Code §§ 9.41.040(1)(a), (2)(a)(i), (4) 941.070(1)(a), 9.
WVAny felony or bribery in an election; restored upon discharge. W. Va. Const. art. IV, § 1; see Osborne v. Kanawha County Court, 68 W. Va. 189, see 55 Op. W. Va. Att'y Gen. 3 (1972). Any felony or bribery in an election; restored only by pardon. W. Va. Const. art 7, § 11; W. Va. Code §§ 6-5-5, 52-1-8(b); U.S. v. Morrell, 61 F.3d 279 (4th Cir. 1995). Any felony or bribery in an election; restored upon completion of sentence for felony, pardon only for bribery of state official. W. Va. Code §§ 6-5-5, 52-1-8(b); see 55 Op. W. Va. Att'y Gen. 3 (1972); 51 Op. Att'y Gen. 182 (1965). All firearms rights for felonies and misdemeanor domestic violence; restored by court except for felonies involving violence, drugs, or sexual offense, which must be pardoned or expunged. See W. Va. Code § 61-7-7(a)(1), (a)(8), (c).
WIAny felony or bribery; restored upon completion of sentence. Wis. Stat § 304.078 (3).Same as vote. Wis. Stat § 304.078 (3).Any felony or bribery; restored by pardon. Wis. Const. art. XIII, § 3; Wis. Stat. §§ 111.335(cg), (cs); 941.29(1)(a)-(b),(5).All firearms rights upon conviction of felony; restored by pardon. Wis. Stat. § 941.29(1)(a)-(b), (2), (5).
WYAny felony; restored by pardon or gubernatorial restoration of rights. Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 6-10-106(a), 1-11-102, 7-13-105(a). Effective 1/1/16, non-violent first offenders restored to vote automatically upon expiration of sentence. § 7-13-105(b). Same as vote (ex. for non-violent first offenders). Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 6-10-106(a), 1-11-102, 7-13-105(a). Same as vote (ex. for non-violent first offenders). Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 6-10-106(a), 1-11-102, 7-13-105(a). All firearms rights for crimes involving drugs or violence; restored through pardon. See Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 6-8-102, 6-1-104(a)(xii). Handgun rights lost for misdemeanors involving violence (3 yrs) or drugs (1 yr); restored through expungement. Id. at § 6-8-104(c).

 

2.  Firearms Rights Under Federal Law

This second chart illustrates the complex relationship between state and federal law relating to loss and restoration of firearms rights after conviction.   Under 18 U.S.C. § 922(g), federal firearms rights are lost upon conviction of a “crime punishable by a imprisonment for a term exceeding one year.”  The statutory relief specified in 18 U.S.C. § 925(c) has not been funded by Congress since the early 1990s.  See United States v. Bean, 537 U.S. 21 (2002).  Under 18 U.S.C. § 921(a)(20), a disqualifying conviction does not include one that “has been expunged, or set aside or for which a person has been pardoned or has had civil rights restored…unless such pardon, expungement, or restoration of rights expressly provides that the person may not ship, transport, possess, or receive firearms.”  A similar loss and relief scheme is applicable to conviction of “a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence.” See 18 U.S.C. § 921(a)(33)(B).  In general, state offenders who lost civil rights* may avoid federal firearms restrictions if their rights were restored by whatever means, including by operation of law, and if they have no state law firearms disability.  See Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308, 313 (1998).  However, the federal courts have not been entirely consistent in their recognition of particular state law relief mechanisms, or in their interpretation of the “unless” clause.  The one thing that is fairly clear is that federal offenders may avoid federal (and frequently state) firearms restrictions only through a presidential pardon.  See Beecham v. United States, 511 U.S. 368 (1994); see also United States v. Bean, supra.

It is important to stress that the information in this chart is solely for educational and informational purposes, and does not constitute legal advice.  While every effort has been made to ensure that the information is correct and current, the law in this area is complex and constantly changing, and readers are cautioned to research and verify it independently at an official source.

Updated: May 2020

StateLoss and Restoration of State Firearms PrivilegesCivil Rights Lost Upon ConvictionHow Lost Civil Rights Are Restored Federal Firearms Relief under 18 § USC 921(a)(20) State Offenders Under No State Disability who Remain Federally Disabled State Felony Offenders who lose neither state nor federal gun privileges
ALHandgun ("pistol") privileges only lost upon conviction of violent crime; restoration by pardon. Ala. Code. §§ 13A-11-70(1), 13A-11-72.Vote, jury, office (all three for certain offenses only). Ala. Const. art VIII, § 177; Ala. Code. §§ 12-16-60, 15-22-36.1, 36-2-1.Vote restored to most offenders through expedited restoration process (Ala. Code § 15-22-36.1); other rights (if lost) by pardon.Federal disability relieved only by pardon.State offenders entitled under state law to possess long guns (all) or handguns (non-violent) remain federally disabled unless all civil rights restored. Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998).
AKConcealable weapon privileges lost for 10 years for felony offender (permanent if violent offense), unless conviction set aside or pardoned. Alaska Stat. § 11.61.200(a)(1), (b)(1)-(3). Vote, jury, office. Alaska Stat. §§ 09.20.020, 15.05.030(a), 15.25.030(10), 33.30.241.Vote and jury automatically restored upon discharge. Becoming qualified voter restores right to hold office. Alaska Stat. §§ 09.20.020, 15.05.030(a), 15.25.030(10), 33.30.241.Federal disability relieved when state concealable weapons bar removed for non-person offenses after 10 years.Yes for non-violent, once 10-year period expired.
AZFirearms rights lost upon felony conviction; regained through court action for all but "dangerous" offenders or through pardon. Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 13-904(A), (B); 13-905; 13-906. Vote, jury, office. Ariz. Const. art. VII, § 2(C); Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 13-904(A)(1)-(3); 16-101(A)(5); 21-201(3). First offenders regain all rights (except gun rights) upon completion of sentence; recidivists (incl. federal offenders) must petition court. Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 13-905; 13-906; 13-912(B).Court (or governor) must restore civil rights and firearms rights to relieve federal disabilities.
ARFirearms rights lost upon felony conviction; regained through expungement or pardon, or through gubernatorial restoration for offenses not involving weapons. Ark Code. Ann. § 5-73-103. Vote (felony), jury (felony), office (certain crimes). Ark. Const. art. III, §§ 1, 2; Ark. Const. art. V, § 9; Ark. Const. art. 51, § 11; Ark. Code Ann. §§ 7-6-102(d), 16-31-102(a)(4).Vote automatic, other rights by pardon (jury) or expungement (office). Ark. Const. art. III, §§ 1, 2; Ark. Const. art. V, § 9; Ark. Const. art. 51, § 11; Ark. Code Ann. §§ 7-6-102(d), 16-31-102(a)(4) Federal disability relieved only by pardon or expungement
CAFirearms rights lost (including violent misdemeanants), regained only through pardon (except for underlying offense involving dangerous weapon), but not set-aside. Cal. Penal §§ 12021, 4852.17Vote (if imprisoned or on parole), jury (for certain offenses), office (for certain offenses). Cal. Const. art. II, § 4; Cal. Const. art. VII, § 8; Cal. Civil Proc. § 203(a)(5); Cal. Gov't § 1021; Cal. Penal §§ 67, 68, 74, 88, 98.Vote automatic upon release from imprisonment or parole, other rights regained by pardon. Cal. Const. art. II, § 4; Cal. Const. art. VII, § 8; Cal. Civil Proc. § 203(a)(5); Cal. Gov't § 1021; Cal. Penal §§ 67, 68, 74, 88, 98.Pardon. (State set-aside not sufficient, People v. Frawley, 98 Cal. Rptr.2d 555, 564 (Cal. App. 2000).)
COFirearms rights lost (for felony convictions) unless pardoned. Col. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-108.Vote and office (while imprisoned or on parole); jury right not lost at all. Col. Const. art. 7, § 10; Col. Rev. Stat. §§ 1-2-103, 18-1.3-401. All rights lost automatically restored upon release from parole. Col. Const. art. 7, § 10; Col. Rev. Stat. §§ 1-2-103, 18-1.3-401. Pardon. Serious misdemeanants who lose no civil rights must also be pardoned.
CTHandgun privileges lost (felony or serious juvenile offense), restored by pardon (or expungement). Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 29-28(b), 29-32, 29-36f(b), 53a-217(a).Vote and office (for certain offenses, if imprisoned), jury (for felonies). Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 9-46, 51-217(a)(2).Vote and office regained upon release from parole; jury restored seven years after completion of sentence. Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 9-46, 51-217(a)(2). Pardon, expungement, set-aside; State offenders entitled to long guns under state law remain federally disabled (Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998)).
DEFirearms rights lost if felony or crime of violence or drug crime; restored by pardon. Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, §§ 1448, 4364. Non-felony bar lasts only five years. § 1448(d). Vote (felony & certain offenses), jury (felony), office (certain offenses). Del. Const. art II, § 21; art. V, §§ 2, 7; Del. Code Ann. tit. 15, § 1701; tit. 10, § 4509(b)(6).Vote restored after 5 years (certain serious offenders need pardon), jury through pardon, and office not restored through pardon. Del. Const. art II, § 21; art. V, §§ 2, 7; Del. Code Ann. tit. 15, §§ 1701, 6103-05; tit. 10, § 4509(b)(6); tit. 11, § 4364.Pardon
DCFirearms rights lost for violent and sex offenses; drug and certain other offenses within five years. D.C. Code § 7-2502.03.Vote and office if imprisoned; jury. D.C. Code §§ 1-204.02, 1-1001.02, 11-1906; D.C Mun. Regs. Tit. 3, § 500.3.Vote and office upon release; jury after one year. D.C. Code §§ 1-204.02, 1-1001.02, 11-1906; D.C Mun. Regs. Tit. 3, § 500.3. Pardon; Serious misdemeanants who lose no civil rights must also be pardoned.Yes, for those who went to prison and lost civil rights, and whose crime does not result in loss of firearms rights.
FLFirearms rights lost, restored by restoration or by pardon after 8-year waiting period. Fla. Stat. §§ 790.001(6), 790.23(1).Vote, jury and office. Fla. Const. art. VI, § 4 ; Fla. Stat. Ann. § 944.292(1).Pardon or restoration of rights by executive clemency. Fla. Const. art. VI, § 4 ; Fla. Stat. Ann. § 944.292(1). Pardon specifically restoring gun rights; Serious misdemeanants who lose no civil rights must also be pardoned.
GAAll firearms rights for felonies; first offenders may apply for a license 10 years after completion of sentence, five years for deferred adjudication, otherwise by pardon. Ga. Code Ann. §§ 16-11-129, 16-11-131.Vote (certain felonies), jury (felonies), office (certain felonies). Ga. Const. art. II, §§ 1-2 ; Ga. Code Ann. §§ 15-12-60, 15-12-120, 42-9-54.Vote automatic upon completion of sentence, jury and office restored by pardon. Ga. Const. art. II, §§ 1-2 ; Ga. Code Ann. §§ 15-12-60, 15-12-120, 42-9-54. Pardon specifically restoring gun rights. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-131(c).
HIFirearms rights lost only during sentence, except for enumerated violent felonies; those convicted of violent felonies must seek restoration through "expungement, pardon, setting aside the conviction, or other comparable procedure." Idaho Code Ann. §§ 18-310, 18-3316(4) Vote, jury, office (all if sentenced to prison, including suspended sentence). Idaho Code Ann. § 18-310Restoration upon expiration of sentence. Idaho Code Ann. § 18-310Non-violent felony offenders who lost rights by virtue of prison sentence not subject to federal disabilities. See United States v. Gomez, 911 F.2d 219, 221 (9th Cir. 1990) (Idaho law restores civil rights and does not specifically restrict firearms rights). Yes, for non-violent felony offenders sentenced to prison term (including suspended)
IDFirearms rights lost (felonies, drug crimes, crimes of violence), restored by pardon if specifically provided. Haw. Rev. Stat. § 134-7 ; Haw. Op. Att'y Gen. 81-12.Vote, jury, office. Haw. Rev. Stat. §§ 831-2, 831-5. 612-4(b)(2). Vote, office restored upon completion of sentence (may vote during parole or probation); jury through pardon. Haw. Rev. Stat. §§ 831-2, 831-5. 612-4(b)(2). Pardon specifically restoring gun rights, set-aside. Haw. Rev. Stat. § 134-7; Haw. Op. Att'y Gen. 81-12
ILFirearms rights lost for felony conviction, may be restored by State Police or court, after 20 years in the case of violent offenses, or by pardon. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/24-1.1(a); 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 65/10(c).Vote (upon imprisonment), office created by state constitution (ex: governor, judge, General Assembly member) upon conviction. Ill. Const. art. III, § 2; 10 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/3-5; 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/5-5-5; 65 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/3.1 10 5(B).** Vote restored upon release; office upon completion of sentence (pardon required for certain elected offices). Ill. Const. art. III, § 2; 10 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/3-5; 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/5-5-5; 65 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/3.1 10 5(B).Pardon, set-aside or expungement, if firearms rights not expressly excluded. No. But see Buchmeier v. United States, 581 F.3d 561 (7th Cir. 2009) (anti-mouse-trapping rule; state notice restoring civil rights but not expressly noting firearms restrictions sufficient to trigger restoration of rights protection under Section 921(a)(20)).
INHandgun privileges lost (felony and domestic battery), restored by expungement; § 35-38-9-10(b), or pardon and/or state police after 15 years. Ind. Code §§ 35-47-2-1, 35-47-2-3, 35-47-2-20, 35-47-4-7, 11-9-2-4.Vote (if imprisoned), jury (felonies and certain misdemeanors), office (felonies). Ind. Const. art. 2, § 8; Ind. Code §§ 3-7-13-4, 3-8-1-5(c)(3), 33-28-5-18, 35-50-5-1.1(a).Vote restored upon release; jury upon completion of sentence, office by pardon. Ind. Const. art. 2, § 8; Ind. Code §§ 3-7-13-4, 3-8-1-5(c)(3), 33-28-5-18, 35-50-5-1.1(a).Expungement restores gun rights; Pardon specifically restoring gun rights. Ind. Code § 35-47-2-20.State offenders entitled to long guns under state law remain federally disabled. (Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998))
IAFirearms rights lost, may be restored by pardon, specific restoration from governor, or expungement after five years (forcible and firearms offenses only by pardon). Iowa Code §§ 724.26, 724.8, 724.15, 724.27, 914.7.Vote, office (both for infamous crimes). Iowa Const. art. II, § 5; Iowa Code § 48A.30(d).**Vote, office by pardon or gubernatorial restoration of rights upon completion of sentence. Iowa Const. art. II, § 5; Iowa Code §§ 48A.30(d), 914.2.Pardon or restoration of rights, if firearms not expressly excluded; set-aside. Some misdemeanants may also be subject. Iowa Code §§ 724.26, 724.8, 724.15, 724.27, 914.7.
KSAll firearms rights for a "person felony" or drug offense, if a firearm was carried at the time of offense; 5-year or 10-yr restriction for other person felonies; 10-yr restriction for non-person felonies involving firearm. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6304. Vote, jury, office. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6613(a).Jury eligibility lost for a minimum of 10 years. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 43-158(c), Otherwise all rights restored automatically upon completion of sentence. § 21-6613(b), 22-3722. Federal bar avoided when all civil rights restored or person pardoned, as long as not subject to firearms disability under state law. United States v. Burns, 934 F.2d 1157 (10th Cir. 1991).Minimum of 10 years for those no longer subject to state gun disabilities, unless pardoned.
KYFirearms rights lost for any felony unless pardoned. (Pre-1994 convictions: handguns only). Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 527.040(1).Vote (incl. treason, bribery, & high misdemeanors), jury (felonies only), office (incl. high misdemeanors). Ky. Const. §§ 145(1)-(2), 150; Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 27A.070, 29A.080. Pardon or gubernatorial restoration of rights. Ky. Const. §§ 145(1)-(2), 150; Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 27A.070, 29A.080. Pardon. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 527.040(1).
LAFirearms rights only lost for crime of violence, drug felony, sex offenses, restored automatically for ten years after completion of sentence, or earlier by pardon. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 14:95.1(C). Concealed handguns separately regulated. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(C)(10). Vote (if sentence to imprisonment), jury, office. La. Const. art. I, § 10; La. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 401(A)(5).Vote upon release from supervision, office upon completion of sentence or after 15 years, jury by pardon. La. Const. art. I, §§ 10, 20; La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 15:572(D); La. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 401(A)(5). Pardon, set-aside (La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 14:95.1(C)), or passage of time (10 yrs). Some misdemeanants may also be subject. Federal authorities do not recognize state First Offender Pardon. Separate bar on concealed weapons may preclude federal restoration under Caron v. U.S.
MEFirearms rights upon conviction of felony. After five years, a permit to carry any weapon not within definition of "firearms" under 18 U.S.C. § 921(a)(3). Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 15, § 393.No rights lostN/APardonPartial restoration means no guns unless pardoned
MDFirearms rights lost for felony conviction, crime of violence, or misdemeanors carrying 2+ years sentence, restored by pardon. Md. Code Ann., Public Safety §§ 5-101(c), 5-133(b). Vote, office, jury only if sentenced to more than six months imprisonment. Md. Const. art I, §§ 4, 12; Md. Code Ann., Election Law § 3-102(b); Md. Code Ann., Courts & Judic. Proc. § 8-103(b)(4).Vote and office upon completion of sentence; jury by pardon. Md. Const. art I, §§ 4, 12; Md. Code Ann., Election Law § 3-102(b); Md. Code Ann., Courts & Judic. Proc. § 8-103(c).Pardon, set-aside
MAHandguns privileges lost permanently for felonies and serious misdemeanors; long gun privileges restored five years after conviction or release, except to drug and violent offenders. Pardon necessary to relieve handgun restrictions. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, §§ 122, 129B(1), 131(d)(i).Vote (if imprisoned), jury (within seven years). Mass. Const. Amend. Art. 3; Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 234A, § 4(7)Vote restored upon release, jury right seven years after completion of sentence. Mass. Const. Amend. Art. 3; Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 234A, § 4(7)Pardon necessary as long as individual subject to any state law gun restrictions. See Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998).State offenders entitled to long guns under state law remain federally disabled. See Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998).
MIFirearms rights lost (for felonies) for three years after completion of sentence, five years for specified violent or drug offenses (plus county restoration). Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 28.424, 750.224f. Vote (if imprisoned), jury, office (some offenses). Mich. Const. art. 2, § 2; art. 4, § 7; Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 168.758b, 600.1307a, 750.118.Vote restored upon release, jury only with pardon or expungement (first offenders), office disqualifications vary. Mich. Const. art. 2, § 2; art. 4, § 7; Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 168.758b, 600.1307a, 750.118. Pardon or expungement (first offender set-aside), or passage of time (3-5 years). Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.224f(4). State offenders who have regained gun rights under state law remain federally disabled.
MNFirearms rights lost upon felony conviction restored upon completion of sentence unless crime of violence (defined to include drug crimes and many theft and burglary offenses), in which case court may restore upon petition. Minn. Stat. §§ 609.165, 624.712-624.713. Vote (treason or felony), jury, office. Minn. Const. art. VII, § 1; Minn. Stat. § 609.42.Restoration of all rights upon expiration of sentence (except bribery conviction permanently disqualified from public office) Minn. Const. art. VII, § 1; Minn. Stat. §§ 609.42, 609.165.Pardon or set-aside. Felony offenders convicted of nonviolent crime or whose gun rights restored by court not subject to federal disabilities. Cf. United States v. Collins, 321 F.3d 691 (8th Cir. 2003) (defendant subject to federal disabilities because subject to state gun restriction after restoration of civil rights).Yes, for nonviolent crimes.
MSFirearms rights lost upon conviction of felony unless pardoned or granted a "certificate of rehabilitation" by a court. Miss. Code Ann. § 97-37-5.Vote, jury, office (all for certain offenses only). Miss. Const. art 4., § 44; art. 5, § 124; art. 12, §§ 241, 253. Miss. Code Ann. §§ 13-5-1, 1-3-19, 99-19-35.If lost, rights to vote and hold office restored by pardon; jury right restored after 5 years. Miss. Const. art 4., § 44; art. 5, § 124; art. 12, §§ 241, 253. Miss. Code Ann. §§ 13-5-1, 1-3-19, 99-19-35.Pardon only means of relief from federal disabilities for those who lost civil rights; for those who lost no civil rights, certificate of rehabilitation. State offenders who have regained gun rights under state law probably remain federally disabled, since certificate of rehabilitation does not restore civil rights.
MOFirearms rights lost (except antique weapons) unless pardoned. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.070.Vote, jury, office. Mo. Const. art. VIII, § 2; Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 115.133, 494.425, 561.021-561.026.Vote and office restored upon completion of sentence; jury by pardon. Mo. Const. art. VIII, § 2; Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 115.133, 494.425, 561.021-561.026.Pardon or expungement provides relief from federal disabilities.
MTFirearms rights lost if conviction involves use of dangerous weapon; may be regained through application to court. Mont. Code Ann. §§ 45-8-313, 45-8-314, 45-8-321.Vote, jury, office. Mont. Const. art. II, § 28; art. IV, §§ 2, 4; Mont. Code Ann. §§ 3-15-303, 46-18-801.All rights restored upon termination of supervision. Mont. Const. art. II, § 28; art. IV, §§ 2, 4; Mont. Code Ann. §§ 3-15-303, 46-18-801.No exposure for felony offenders unless offense involves use of dangerous weapon, and court has not authorized permit.Yes, except for offenders convicted of offense involving use of dangerous weapon.
NEFirearms rights lost, restored by governor with authority from Pardon Board, or by set-aside. Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 28-1206, 83-1,130(2). Vote, jury, office. Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 29-112, 29-112.01, 29-2264.Vote restored two years after completion of sentence; other rights through warrant of discharge from Pardon Board. Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 29-112, 29-112.01, 29-2264.Restoration procedure administered by Pardon Board, governor; set-aside.
NVAll firearms rights lost for any felony; restored by application to the sentencing court, the Board of Parole Commissioners, or Board of Pardons. Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 202.360, 213.090Vote, jury, office (all three for treason or felonies). Nev. Const. art. 2, § 1; art. 15, § 3First offenders w/ less serious offenses may regain all three rights automatically (office and criminal jury: wait four and six years); serious offenders and recidivists most apply to court or Board of Pardons. Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 213.090, 213.155, 213.157, 176A.850. Pardon or court restoration. Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 203.360, 213.090
NHFirearms rights lost upon conviction of felony against "person or property of another" and felony drug offenses; non-violent crimes may be restored by court (annulment), all by pardon. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 4:23, 159:3, 651:5.Vote (if incarcerated), office. N.H. Rev. Stat. § 607-A:2, N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 500-A:7-a(V).**Vote restored upon release from prison, office upon completion of sentence. N.H. Rev. Stat. § 607-A:2. Jury upon annulment. N.H. Rev. Stat. § 500-A:7-a(V).Pardon or Annulment. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 4:23, 651:5.
NJFirearms rights lost by violent offenders; handguns prohibited to all convicted of crimes or domestic violence offenses; restored by pardon or gubernatorial restoration. N.J. Const. art. V, § 2; N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2C:39-7, 2C:58-3, 2C:58-4. Vote & jury (excluding petty offenses), office. N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2A:167-5, 2B:20-1, 2C:1-4, 2C:51-2, 2C:51-3, 19:4-1. Vote restored upon completion of sentence (election law offense requires pardon); jury and office by pardon. N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2A:167-5, 19:4-1.PardonNon-violent state offenders who did not lose gun rights under state law remain federally disabled.
NMFirearms rights lost, restored automatically ten years following the conviction, or by earlier pardon. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 30-7-16.Vote (incl. "infamous" crimes), jury, office (incl. infamous crimes). N.M. Const. art. VII, §§ 1-2; N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 31-13-1, 38-5-1.Vote and jury restored upon completion of sentence; office with gubernatorial restoration of rights or pardon. N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 31-13-1, 38-5-1.Notwithstanding earlier restoration of gun rights under state law, felony offenders can avoid federal law only through pardon. No. State offenders who regained gun rights after 10 years under state law may remain federally disabled because rights not fully restored.
NYFirearms rights lost; may be expressly restored by pardon or Certificate of Good Conduct. N.Y. Penal Law §§ 400.00(1)(c), 265.01(4); N.Y. Correct. Law §§ 700(1)(a), 701(1). Vote (if incarcerated), jury, office. N.Y. Elec. Law § 5-106; N.Y. Jud. Law § 510(3); N.Y. Pub. Off. Law § 30(1)(e).Vote restored upon expiration of sentence or release from parole, other rights restored by pardon or certificate of relief from disabilities. N.Y. Elec. Law § 5-106; N.Y. Jud. Law § 510(3); N.Y. Pub. Off. Law § 30(1)(e); N.Y. Correct. Law §§ 700-706.Pardon, or if firearms rights expressly restored by certificate. N.Y. Correct. Law §§ 700(1)(a), 701(1).
NCFirearms rights lost (certain antitrust/trade offenses excepted); restored by pardon; Nonviolent first offenders may petition court 20 years after rights restored. N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 14-415.1, 14-415.4. See also Britt v. State, 681 S.E.2d 320 (N.C. 2009).Vote, jury, office. N.C. Const. art. VI, §§ 2(3), 8; N.C. Gen. Stat. § 9-3.All rights restored upon termination of supervision. N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 13-1, 13-2. Pardon. Britt court order only means of relief from federal disabilities, see United States v. McLean, 904 F.2d 216 (4th Cir. 1990) (federal firearms restrictions apply, even if citizenship rights restored, due to NC law restricting firearms for certain time period).
NDFirearms rights lost for five years after sentence or release discharge in case of nonviolent felonies and violent misdemeanors; for 10 years in case of violent felonies. Pardon restores earlier if expressly stated. N.D. Cent. Code § 62.1-02-01.Vote, jury, office (all only during actual incarceration). N.D. Cent. Code §§ 12.1-33-01, 12.1-33-03, 27-09.1-08 All rights restored upon release. N.D. Cent. Code §§ 12.1-33-01, 12.1-33-03, 27-09.1-08. Felony offenders who lost civil rights because sentenced to prison, and who are no longer under state gun bar are not federally disabled. Those not sentenced to prison who lost no rights cannot qualify under "restoration of rights" provision. See U.S. v. Logan, 522 U.S. 23 (2007).
OHFirearms rights lost if convicted of a violent felony or any drug offense; relief available from court. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §§ 2923.125, 2923.13, 2923.14.Vote (while incarcerated), jury, office. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §§ 2961.01, 2967.16Vote restored upon release, jury and office upon completion of sentence.Non-violent felony offenders or those relieved by court from firearms disabilities are not federally disabled if sentenced to prison. See United States v. Cassidy, 899 F.2d 543, 549 (6th Cir. 1990) (federal restriction applied after restoration of civil rights because defendant still restricted under Ohio law from possessing firearm). Others by pardon. Felony offenders not sentenced to prison who lost no civil rights remain federal disabled even after regaining state gun rights.Those who lost and regained civil rights and are no longer subject to state gun disabilities.
OKConcealable firearms barred for felony offenders, restoration by pardon only for non-violent offenders. 21 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 1283. Vote, jury, office (incl. misdemeanor embezzlement offenses). Okla. Const. art. V, § 18; 26 Okla. Stat. Ann. §§ 4-101, 5-105a; 21 Okla. Stat. Ann. §§ 312, 1283; 38 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 28(C)(5).Vote restored on discharge, jury after pardon, office 15 years after discharge or pardon. Okla. Const. art. V, § 18; 26 Okla. Stat. Ann. §§ 4-101, 5-105a; 21 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 312; 38 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 28(C)(5).Gun rights restored by pardon for non-violent offenders, set-asideYes, for those not subject to state gun disabilities.
ORFirearms rights lost, restored automatically to certain first offenders after 15 years; restoration by court to non-violent offenders with one-year waiting period, juveniles after 4 years; otherwise by pardon. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.270, 166.274. Vote, jury, office (all only while incarcerated). Or. Const. art. IV, § 8(4); Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.281.All rights restored upon release or set-aside. Or. Const. art. IV, § 8(4); Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.281.Certain first felony offenders who lost rights by sentence to imprisonment are not federally disabled after 15 years; others restored by court, pardon or set-aside. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.270, 166.274. State offenders permitted to possess long guns under state law remain federally disabled. (Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998)).
PAFirearms rights lost for violent and drug offenses, repeat DUI; restoration by pardon, vacated conviction, or by court after 10 years. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. §§ 6105, 6105.1.Vote (while incarcerated), jury, office. Pa. Const. art. II, § 7; art. IV, § 9(a); 25 Pa. Cons. Stat. §§ 2602, 3146.1; 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 4502; 37 Pa. Code ch. 81. Vote upon release, jury and office by pardon. Pa. Const. art. II, § 7; art. IV, § 9(a); 25 Pa. Cons. Stat. §§ 2602, 3146.1; 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 4502; 37 Pa. Code ch. 81. Pardon or set-aside.Yes, for first offenders who lost civil rights, after 15 years or earlier restoration by court.
PRFirearms rights lost; restored through pardon or judicial expungement ("elimination"). P.R. Laws Ann. tit. 25, § 456j; tit. 34, § 1725a-1 et seq.; P.R. Const. art. IV, § 4.Vote, jury, office. P.R. Const. art. II, § 12.All restored upon release. P.R. Const. art. II, § 12.Pardon or expungement.State offenders who did not lose guns rights under state law or who regained them by court order remain federally disabled unless conviction pardoned, set aside or expunged.
RIFirearms rights lost only for "crime of violence;" felony domestic violence restored automatically after two years; otherwise restored by pardon. R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-5.Vote (while incarcerated), jury, office (incl. misdemeanors). R.I. Const. art. II, § 1; art. III, § 2; art. IX, § 13; R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 9-9-1.1(c), 13-10-1.Vote upon release, jury upon completion of sentence, office 3 years after completion of sentence or earlier pardon. R.I. Const. art. II, § 1; art. III, § 2; art. IX, § 13; R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 9-9-1.1(c), 13-10-1.Non-violent felony offenders, or DV offenders after two years, if they lost all rights not federally disabled; others by expungement or set-aside.
SCHandgun privileges lost for crime of violence (including serious drug trafficking), restored by pardon. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-30. Vote (incl. election offenses) and office (both while incarcerated), jury. S.C. Const. art. XVII, § 1; S.C. Code Ann. §§ 7-5-120(B), 16-13-210, 14-7-810, 24-21-920, 24-21-990. Vote and office upon release (office after embezzlement by General Assembly vote) or by pardon, jury by pardon. S.C. Const. art. XVII, § 1; S.C. Code Ann. §§ 7-5-120(B), 16-13-210, 14-7-810, 24-21-920, 24-21-990.Pardon.Yes, for non-violent offenders who served prison sentence and are not subject to state law firearms disabilities; felony DV offenders after two years.
SDFirearms rights lost if convicted of "crime of violence" or serious drug felony, restored automatically after 15 years if no similar conviction; earlier by pardon. S.D. Codified Laws §§ 22-14-15, 24-14-12.Vote, jury, office (all while incarcerated). S.D. Const. art. 3, § 3; S.D. Codified Laws §§ 16-13-10, 23A-27-35, 24-5-2, 24-15A-7.All rights restored upon release. S.D. Const. art. 3, § 3; S.D. Codified Laws §§ 16-13-10, 23A-27-35, 24-5-2, 24-15A-7.Violent and drug offenders who lost rights by virtue of prison sentence after 15 years are not federally disabled; others by pardon, set-aside.All state offenders entitled under state law to long guns (Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998)), and non-violent state offenders entitled to handguns, remain federally disabled.
TNHandgun privileges lost to all felony offenders, may be restored by court order to all but violent or drug offenders, who also lose long gun rights. Violent and drug offenders regain through expungement only. Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 39-17-1307, 39-17-1316. See also Blackwell v. Haslam, 2012 Tenn. App. LEXIS 23 (Tenn. Ct. App. 2012).Vote, jury, office. Tenn. Const. art. I, § 5; Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 8-18-101, 22-1-102, 40-29-101 et seq., 40-29-201 et seq.Vote (upon completion of sentence, but most serious offenses only by pardon), jury and office by court order or pardon. Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 8-18-101, 22-1-102, 40-29-101 et seq., 40-29-201 et seq.Pardon, expungement or set-aside relives federal disabilities as long as state law disabilities are not expressly reserved. Yes, violent and drug offenders who lost rights by virtue of prison sentence after 15 years.
TXFirearms rights restored five years after release from supervision, but only for possession at home. Tex. Penal Code § 46.04. Vote, jury, office (certain offenses). Tex. Const. art. 6, § 1; art. 16, § 5; Tex. Gov't Code Ann. §§ 62.102, 406.018; Tex. Elec. Code Ann. § 11.002; Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 48.05(a). Vote (upon completion of sentence), jury and office by pardon. Tex. Const. art. 6, § 1; Tex. Gov't Code Ann. § 62.102; Tex. Elec. Code Ann. § 11.002; Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 48.05(a).Pardon, set-aside.
UTFirearms rights lost, regained by court (expungement) or pardon. Most violent offenses ineligible for expungement. Utah Code Ann. § 76-10-503.Vote, jury, office. Utah Code Ann. §§ 20A-2-101, 78B-1-105, 77-5-1, 77-6-1.Vote upon parole/probation or release from prison, jury upon expungement, office upon expungement or after 10 years. Utah Code Ann. §§ 20A-2-101 et seq., 78B-1-105.Expungement or pardon.All state offenders entitled under state law to possess guns at home remain federally disabled absent pardon or set-aside.
VTFirearms rights not lost except by court order. State v. Kasper, 566 A.2d 982 (Vt. 1989).Jury (only those sentenced to prison). Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 4, § 962(a)(5); tit. 12, § 64; tit. 28, § 807.** Pardon. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 4, § 962(a)(5); tit. 12, § 64; tit. 28, § 807.Pardon, set-aside, certificate of restoration of rights
VIFirearms rights lost, regained by pardon.. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 23, § 456a Vote, jury, office. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 14, § 91; tit. 4, § 471(1).Vote and office restored upon release, jury upon pardon. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 14, § 91; tit. 4, § 471(1).Pardon or expungement.State offenders entitled under state law to possess guns remain federally disabled b/ jury right.
VAFirearms rights lost upon conviction of felony (or if adjudicated delinquent based on certain serious offenses), restored by pardon or by court if other rights previously restored. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.2. Separate bar on concealed weapons applies to some misdemeanants. See Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.09. Vote, jury, office. Va. Const. art. II, § 1; Va. Code Ann. § 8.01-338.Gubernatorial restoration of rights. Va. Const. art. V, § 12; Va. Code Ann. § 53.1-231.2.Pardon or restoration of rights.
WAFirearms rights lost on conviction of violent, drug or sex offense, including misdemeanants, but not those sentenced to probation. Restoration for less serious offenses by court order after a waiting period. Wash. Rev. Ann. §§ 9.41.010 et seq.Vote, jury, office. Wash. Rev. Code §§ 29A.04.079, 42.04.020, 2.36.070(5).All rights restored by certificate of discharge upon completion of sentence, or by pardon. Wash. Rev. Code §§ 9.94A.637, 9.94A.885, 9.92.066, 9.96.020, 29.08.520. Pardon, annulment, or other equivalent procedure based on a finding of the rehabilitation relieves federal disabilities. See State offenders need both governor's restoration and court order to avoid federal bar.Separate bar on concealed weapons may preclude federal restoration for some offenses.
WVFirearms rights lost by felony offenders (and domestic violence misdemeanors); restored by court except for violent, drug and sex offenses, whose convictions must be pardoned or expunged. W. Va. Code §§ 61-7-7. Vote, jury, office. W. Va. Const. art. IV, § 1; W. Va. Code §§ 6-5-5, 52-1-8.Vote and office restored upon completion of sentence; jury rights not restored so that WV offenders cannot invoke "restoration of rights" provision of 921(a)(20). U.S. v. Morrell, 61 F.3d 279 (4th Cir. 1995)Pardon or expungement under W. Va. Code § 61-7-7(d).Yes, if state firearms rights not lost.
WIFirearms rights lost by felony offenders; regained by pardon. Wis. Stat. § 941.29.Vote and jury (both certain offenses), office. Wis. Const. art. XIII, § 3; Wis. Stat. §§ 304.078, 111.335, 941.29.Vote and jury restored upon completion of sentence; office only through pardon. Wis. Const. art. XIII, § 3; Wis. Stat. §§ 304.078, 111.335, 941.29.Pardon. Wis. Stat. § 941.29.
WYFirearms rights lost by those convicted of "violent felony" or drug offense unless pardoned. Wyo. Stat. §§ 6-8-102, 6-8-104. Handgun privileges lost for limited periods for violent and drug misdemeanors, restored only through expungement. Vote, jury, office. Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 6-10-106, 1-11-102.Pardon or gubernatorial restoration of rights (voting for first offenders restorable by applying for certificate from parole board). Wyo. Const. art. 4, § 5; Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 6-10-106(a), 7-13-105. Pardon
FedFirearms rights lost for felony conviction or misdemeanor punishable by two years or more, 18 U.S.C. § 922(g)(1), or misdemeanor crime off domestic violence. Id. § 922(g)(9). Depends on state law, federal jury service lost upon conviction of crime punishable by more than 1 year if not restored (28 U.S.C. § 1865(b)(5)), prohibited from certain federal offices per statute (e.g., 18 U.S.C. § 201(b)). Depends on state law, or pardonPardonState offenders entitled under state law to possess guns remain federally disabled; expungement may not be effective for misdemeanants subject to federal bar, See Wyoming ex re. Crank v. United States, 539 F.3d 1236, 1239 (10th Cir. 2008).


* Convictions that do not result in the loss of any civil rights under state law, such as most misdemeanor convictions, may not satisfy the “civil rights restored” standard,  See United States v. Logan, 522 U.S. 23 (2007).

3.  State-by-state information

Federal

State law governs loss and restoration of the right to vote in federal or state elections, as well as eligibility for state jury service and state public office, for people with state or federal convictions.  Federal jury eligibility is lost upon conviction in state or federal court of a crime punishable by more than one year if a person’s “civil rights have not been restored.”  Federal law does not prevent holding federal office based on a conviction.

Federal firearms disabilities are removed for those with state convictions by various state law restoration mechanisms, and for those with federal convictions by a presidential pardon.  Federal law does not prohibit possession of antique firearms.

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Alabama

A person convicted of one of 47 disqualifying felonies—including murder, sexual assault, drug trafficking, and some property crimes—loses the rights to vote, to run for state office, and to serve on a jury.  The right to vote is restored upon application after completion of sentence, including payment of fines and restitution, so long as no other charges are pending.  This expedited restoration process does not apply to persons convicted of serious violent or sex offenses who may vote only if pardoned by the governor.  The rights to run for office, serve on a jury, or possess a handgun can only be restored by a pardon.  Restoration process also applies to those with federal and out-of-state convictions.

A person convicted of a violent crime loses the right to possess a handgun. This right can only be restored by a pardon.

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Alaska

A person convicted of a felony loses the rights to vote, to run for state office, and to serve on a jury.  These rights are restored automatically upon completion of sentence.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a “concealable weapon” (such as a handgun) for 10 years following completion of sentence, which includes any period of parole or probation.  A person convicted of a crime against a person—such as homicide, assault, kidnapping, or robbery—loses this right permanently.

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Arizona

A person convicted of a felony loses the rights to vote, to run for state office, and to sit on a jury.  After a first felony conviction, these rights are restored automatically upon completion of sentence if all restitution has been paid.  (Unlike unpaid restitution, unpaid fines do not affect restoration of rights.)  For those convicted of two or more felonies, or who have unpaid restitution, these rights may be restored by the court two years after completion of sentence.

A person convicted of a felony also loses the right to possess a firearm.  The court may restore this right two years after completion of sentence for most felonies, or after 10 years for a serious felony (such as murder or sexual assault).  For a person convicted of a “dangerous felony” this right may only be restored by pardon.

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Arkansas

A person convicted of a felony loses the rights to vote and to serve on a jury. The right to vote is restored automatically after completion of sentence, including payment of fines and restitution.  The right to serve on a jury can only be restored by a pardon.  A person convicted of certain crimes of dishonesty loses the right to hold state office. This right may only be restored if the disqualifying conviction is sealed or expunged.

A person convicted of a felony also loses the right to possess a firearm.  This right is restored only by express order of the governor or, in some cases, by sealing or expunging the conviction.

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California

A person convicted of a felony and sentenced to prison loses the right to vote, and a person convicted of “malfeasance in office” or any felony loses the right to serve on a jury.  These rights are restored automatically after completion of sentence, including any period of parole or probation.  A person convicted of vote-buying or certain other crimes of dishonesty loses the right to hold state office, a right restored only by a pardon.

A person convicted of any felony, or a misdemeanor involving weapons or domestic violence, loses the right to possess a firearm.  This right may be restored by a pardon from the governor, but only if the crime did not involve the use of a dangerous weapon.  However, firearms rights lost based on a misdemeanor conviction are automatically restored 10 years after conviction, so long as the person has no outstanding warrants.

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Colorado

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, but only while incarcerated.  A person convicted of a felony also loses the right to hold public office while incarcerated or on parole.  The right to serve on a jury is not affected by a conviction.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm, which is restored only by a pardon.

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Connecticut

A person incarcerated for a felony loses the rights to vote and to hold public office.  These rights are restored for those convicted under Connecticut law upon release from incarceration and completion of parole; federal and out-of-state offenders must also pay fines and restitution.  A person convicted of a felony loses the right to serve on a jury.  This right is restored automatically seven years after conviction, unless the person is still incarcerated.  A pardon may restore this right sooner.

A person convicted of a felony or found delinquent for a “serious juvenile offense” may not receive a permit to carry a handgun. Eligibility may be restored by a pardon.

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Delaware

A person convicted of a felony loses the rights to vote and to sit on a jury.  The right to vote is restored after completion of sentence, except for specified serious offenses.  Restoration of vote not dependent on payment of fines and restitution. The right to sit on a jury can only be restored by a pardon from the governor.  A person convicted of an “infamous crime,” as determined by a court, loses the right to hold state office.  This right cannot be restored by a pardon.

A person convicted of a felony, a specified violent crime, or a drug crime loses the right to possess a firearm.  This right may be restored by a pardon.

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District of Columbia

A person convicted of a felony or incarcerated for certain misdemeanor election law or lobbying violations, loses the rights to vote and to serve on the D.C. Council, but only while incarcerated.  In addition, a person convicted of a felony while serving on the D.C. Council loses the right to hold that office.  A person convicted of a felony also loses the right to serve on a jury.  The court may restore this right one year after completion of sentence, but it will usually wait 10 years.

A person convicted of a felony, violent crime, or specified weapons violations, or who is under indictment for a crime or violence of weapons offense, may not register a firearm. A person convicted within the last five years of any drug crime, of misdemeanor domestic violence or stalking, or two or more DUIs, may not register a firearm. No mechanism for restoration is specified.

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Florida

A person convicted of a felony loses the rights to vote, hold public office, and serve on a jury.  With exceptions for certain serious crimes, the right to vote is restored automatically after completion of sentence, including any period of parole and payment of fines and restitution.  The rights to hold office and to serve on a jury can be restored by the governor with the approval of the Clemency Board.  Under current rules, a person convicted of a minor felony must wait five years after completing their sentence to apply, and a person convicted of a more serious felony must wait seven years.

A person convicted of a felony also loses the right to possess a firearm.  This right can only be restored by the governor, with the approval of the Clemency Board, eight years after completion of sentence.

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Georgia

A person convicted of a felony “involving moral turpitude” (interpreted as any felony) loses the rights to vote, hold public office, and serve on a jury.  The right to vote is restored upon completion of sentence, including payment of fines and restitution.  The rights to hold public office and serve on a jury may be restored by the Board of Pardons, except that in the case of office eligibility ten years must also have elapsed since completion of sentence.

A person convicted of any felony loses the right to possess a firearm, and may regain it through a pardon.

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Hawaii

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, but only while incarcerated.  A person convicted of a felony also loses the rights to hold public office and serve on a jury.  The right to hold public office is restored upon completion of sentence (including parole), but the right to serve on a jury can be restored only by a pardon.

A person convicted of a felony, a crime of violence, or an illegal drug sale loses the right to possess a firearm.  (This includes persons under 25 adjudicated for such an offense.)  This right can be restored only by a pardon.

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Idaho

A person convicted of a felony and sentenced to a term of imprisonment, including a suspended sentence, loses the rights to vote, hold public office, and serve on a jury.  These rights are restored automatically upon completion of any period of imprisonment, parole, or probation.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm.  Except for certain serious violent crimes, this right is restored upon completion of sentence.  For serious violent crimes, the right may only be restored by the Commission for Pardons and Parole no earlier than five years after completion of the sentence.

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Illinois

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, but only while incarcerated.  A person convicted of a felony also loses the right to hold public office.  Except for election-fraud convictions, the right to hold statewide office is restored upon completion of sentence.  But the right to hold other elected office is restored only by a pardon.  A conviction does not affect the right to serve on a jury.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm.  This right may be restored at the discretion of the State Police or a local court if specified standards are met, or if expressly provided in a gubernatorial pardon.

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Indiana

A person convicted of any “infamous crime” loses the right to vote and serve on a jury, but only while incarcerated.  A person convicted of a felony loses the right to hold public office, a right that can only be restored by expungement or a pardon from the governor.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm, and this right is restored to those convicted of less serious crimes by expungement or by a pardon after 15 years, or earlier under certain circumstances.  Persons convicted of a “serious violent felony” may regain firearms rights only by a pardon.  Persons convicted of domestic battery may not possess a handgun, and they may petition the court for restoration after five years.

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Iowa

A person convicted of an “infamous crime” (one punishable by imprisonment) loses the rights to vote and hold public office, with some exceptions.  These rights may only be restored by action of the governor, who ordinarily requires completion of sentence and satisfaction of court debt, though provisional restoration is available earlier.  A person convicted of a felony may be dismissed from a jury because of their conviction, but they are not automatically ineligible.  Those with federal or out-of-state convictions may regain their voting rights through the gubernatorial restoration process, or by restoration in the jurisdiction of their conviction.

A person convicted of a felony, or convicted of misdemeanor domestic violence, loses the right to possess a firearm.  This right can only be restored by the governor at least five years after completion of sentence.

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Kansas

A person convicted of a felony loses the rights to vote, serve on a jury, and hold public office, which are restored automatically upon completion of sentence, including payment of fines and restitution, except that jury ineligibility extend for ten years after the date of conviction.

A person convicted of a “person” felony or analogous juvenile offense loses the right to possess a firearm for ten years, unless the offense involved a firearm in which case the loss is permanent.  A person convicted of a nonperson felony loses the right to possess a firearm for five years, unless the offense involved a firearm in which case the loss is for 10 years.  Expungement may cut short any of these loss periods.

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Kentucky

A person convicted of a felony loses the rights to vote, hold public office, and serve on a jury.  These rights may be restored by personal action of the governor, including by a “partial pardon” after completion of sentence and payment of restitution. For certain lower-level felonies, the right to vote may also be restored by judicial expungement.  Federal and out-of-state convictions are subject to the same restoration regime as Kentucky convictions.  An executive order in December 2019 restored the right to vote and hold office to all but those convicted of the most serious crimes, upon completion of sentence (not including payment of restitution and other court debt).

A person convicted of a felony after July 15, 1994 loses the right to possess any firearm.  A person convicted prior to that date loses only handgun rights.  These rights can be restored only by pardon.

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Louisiana

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote while “under an order of imprisonment,” which includes probation under a suspended sentence and parole, except that a person may apply for restoration of the vote if they have not been incarcerated in the last five years.  Eligibility for jury service is lost upon conviction and is restored only by pardon.  Eligibility for elective office is not affected by conviction.

A person convicted of specified crimes, including some violent felonies, weapons offenses, and sex offenses, loses the right to possess a firearm.  This right is restored automatically 10 years after completion of sentence, or sooner by a pardon.

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Maine

The rights to vote, hold public office, and serve on a jury are not affected by a conviction.

A person convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment for at least one year, or a crime involving the use of a dangerous weapon, loses the right to possess a firearm.  A juvenile adjudicated for any analogous offense also loses firearms rights.  A person may be issued a permit to possess a black powder gun five years after completion of sentence except where the crime involved use of a dangerous weapon, but restoration of other firearms rights may only be by a full pardon.  A juvenile adjudicated for a non-violent offense loses rights only for three years or until turning 18.

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Maryland

A person convicted of a felony loses the rights to vote and hold office only while incarcerated, unless the conviction was for buying or selling votes.  A person sentenced to more than one year of imprisonment is ineligible for jury service unless pardoned.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm, including antique weapons.  Persons convicted of a felony and certain misdemeanors who possess a “regulated firearm” (handgun or automatic weapon) are subject to enhanced penalties.  These rights can only be restored by a pardon.

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Massachusetts

A person convicted of a felony loses the rights to vote and hold public office only while incarcerated.  Eligibility for jury service is also lost, and is regained seven years after completion of sentence.

A person convicted of a felony, serious misdemeanor, or drug crime, or adjudicated for an analogous juvenile offense, loses the right to possess a firearm.  A permit to have a rifle or a shotgun may be issued five years after completion of sentence unless the conviction was for a violent or drug crime.  The right to possess a firearm can otherwise be restored by a pardon (rarely granted).

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Michigan

A person who has been convicted is disqualified from voting while “confined,” whether for a felony or misdemeanor.  Only certain convictions disqualify a person from office.  A felony conviction results in ineligibility for jury service, until the conviction is set aside or pardoned.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm.  This right is restored automatically three years after completion of sentence to all except those with specified convictions, who may apply for restoration after five years to their county’s concealed weapons licensing board.  A set-aside or pardon restores this right sooner.

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Minnesota

A person convicted of a felony loses the rights to vote, hold office, and serve on a jury.  These rights are restored automatically after completion of sentence, including any period of parole or supervised release, except that a person convicted of bribery is “forever disqualified” from holding public office.

A person convicted of a specified crime loses the right to possess a firearm, and may regain this right by petitioning the court so long as they are not in prison.  Otherwise restoration is by pardon.

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Mississippi

A person convicted of a specified felony (including murder, rape, theft, and certain other crimes) in a Mississippi state court loses the right to vote.  This right can only be restored by the governor through a pardon or statutory restoration of rights process, or by a two-thirds vote of the state legislature. A person convicted of certain crimes loses the right to hold public office, which can only be restored by a pardon.  A person convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment loses jury eligibility for five years after the conviction, as long as the person is qualified to vote.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm, which may be restored by a judicial certificate of rehabilitation or a pardon.

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Missouri

A person convicted of a felony loses the rights to vote, hold public office, and serve on a jury.  Except for persons convicted of crimes related to voting, the rights to vote and to hold office are restored upon discharge from sentence, including payment of restitution.  Eligibility to serve on a jury can only be restored by a pardon.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm.  This right may be restored by expungement or a pardon.

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Montana

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote only while incarcerated.  The rights to hold public office and sit on a jury are also lost upon conviction of a felony and are restored upon completion of sentence.

Firearms rights are lost only if conviction involves a dangerous weapon; may be regained by petitioning a court.

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Nebraska

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, hold public office, and serve on a jury.  The right to vote is restored automatically two years after completion of sentence, including any period of parole.  The rights to hold office and serve on a jury may only be restored by the Board of Pardons.

A person convicted of a felony also loses the right to possess a firearm.  This right too may only be restored by the Board of Pardons.

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Nevada

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, but only while incarcerated.  The rights to hold public office and serve on a jury are also lost upon conviction.  Eligibility for civil juries is restored upon completion of sentence, and eligibility for criminal juries is restored six years after completion of sentence.  Eligibility to hold public office is restored four years after completion of sentence.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm.  This right can only be restored by a pardon.

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New Hampshire

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote and hold public office, but only while incarcerated.  The right to serve on a jury is also lost upon conviction and restored if the sentencing court annuls the conviction.

A person convicted of a felony drug offense or a felony “against the person or property of another” loses the right to possess a firearm.  For nonviolent offenses, this right may be restored by an annulment or by a pardon.  For violent offenses, it may be restored only by pardon (rarely granted).

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New Jersey

A person convicted of an “indictable offense” (felony) loses the right to vote, but only while incarcerated.  A person convicted of an indictable offense also loses the right to sit on a jury, which may only be restored by the governor, through a pardon or restoration of rights.  A person holding public office or employment who is convicted of a serious crime or one involving dishonesty forfeits the office or employment.  If the crime was one “involving or touching on” the government office or employment, the person is “forever disqualified” from holding any government office or employment.  The permanent bar may be relieved by a gubernatorial pardon or restoration of rights, or by a judicial certificate.

A person convicted of specified violent crimes loses the right to possess a firearm.  A person convicted of any crime, including a “disorderly persons” (misdemeanor) crime of domestic violence, loses the right to purchase a firearm.  These rights may be restored by the governor through pardon or restoration of rights, but not through a judicial certificate.

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New Mexico

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, hold public office, and serve on a jury. The rights to vote and serve on a jury are restored automatically upon completion of sentence, including payment of fines and restitution.  The right to hold office may only be restored by a pardon, or gubernatorial restoration of rights following completion of sentence.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm; this right is restored ten years after completion of sentence, or earlier by a pardon.

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New York

A person convicted of a felony and sentenced to prison loses the right to vote until completion of any term of parole.  Since May 2018, the right to vote has been restored by executive order upon release.  A person convicted of a felony loses the right to sit on a jury, which may be restored by the sentencing court, corrections department, or governor.  While there is no general restriction on the right to hold public office, an official convicted while in office may forfeit their office, and persons with felony convictions must obtain a judicial certificate before qualifying for law enforcement and a few other public offices.

A person convicted of a felony or a “serious offense” loses the right to possess a firearm.  Except for persons convicted of a Class A-1 or violent felony, this right may be restored by the sentencing court, Department of Corrections and Community Supervision, or governor.

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North Carolina

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, hold public office, and serve on a jury, all of which are restored automatically upon “unconditional discharge” from sentence, which includes payment of all court debt.

A person convicted of a felony also loses the right to possess a firearm (with a few anti-trust-related exceptions).  State residents with minor non-violent records may petition the court where they reside for restoration of firearms rights 20 years after completion of sentence.

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North Dakota

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, hold public office, and to sit on a jury, but only while incarcerated.

A person convicted of a felony or a Class A misdemeanor loses the right to possess a firearm.  A person convicted of a nonviolent felony or a Class A misdemeanor regains their rights automatically five years after release from prison or probation.  For someone convicted of a felony involving violence or intimidation, the waiting period is ten years.  A person subject to a five-year waiting period may petition the court to have these rights restored sooner.

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Ohio

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, but only while incarcerated. A person convicted of a felony also loses the rights to hold public office and to serve on a jury, which are restored automatically after “final discharge.”  Public officials convicted of corruption offenses either have a longer waiting period or may be ineligible entirely for public office or employment short of a pardon.

A person convicted of a violent or drug felony loses the right to possess a firearm.  Firearms rights may be restored by a court after completion of sentence or by a pardon.

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Oklahoma

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote for a period of time equal to the term of the sentence.  Jury eligibility is also lost and is restored only by a pardon.  Those convicted of a felony or of misdemeanor embezzlement are disqualified from public office for 15 years after completion of sentence or until pardoned.  A felony conviction results in permanent disqualification from state legislature.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess or live in a residence with a firearm, including imitation pistols and altered air or toy pistols.  This right may be restored by a pardon only if the conviction was for a nonviolent felony.

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Oregon

A person convicted of a felony and sentenced to prison loses the right to vote, hold public office, to sit on a jury, but only while incarcerated.  Eligibility for state legislature is lost until completion of sentence, including payment of court debt.

A person convicted of a felony also loses the right to possess a firearm.  If convicted of only one felony (not involving homicide or a weapons offense), this right is restored automatically 15 years after completion of sentence.  Otherwise, this right can be restored by expungement or a pardon (though it is not clear whether the term “expungement” includes set-aside and sealing).  Persons with certain non-violent felony offenses may regain firearms privileges one year after discharge by petitioning a circuit court where they reside.

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Pennsylvania

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, but only while incarcerated. A person convicted of embezzlement of public money, bribery, perjury, or any felony loses the right to hold public office, unless pardoned.  A person convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment for more than one year may not serve on a jury, unless pardoned.

A person convicted of a specified crime—which includes certain felonies, drug offenses, domestic violence, repeat DUI offenses, and others—loses the right to possess a firearm.  This right may be restored by a court ten years after release from prison, or by pardon or expungement.

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Puerto Rico

The right to vote is not affected by a conviction.  A person convicted of a felony loses all other civil rights until completion of sentence.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm, unless the conviction is pardoned or expunged.

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Rhode Island

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, but only while incarcerated.  A person convicted of a felony also loses the right to serve on a jury, which is restored after completion of sentence.  A person convicted of a felony, or who is sentenced to more than six months in jail for a misdemeanor, loses the right to hold public office until three years after completion of sentence.

A person convicted of a “crime of violence” loses the right to possess a firearm with no relief specified.  Firearms also may not be possessed by a person convicted of specified crimes involving domestic violence unless and until the conviction is expunged, or completion of a one-year sentence.

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South Carolina

A person convicted of a felony or election-law offense, or incarcerated for a misdemeanor, may not vote or hold public office until completion of sentence, including probation or parole but not satisfaction of court costs and restitution.  A person convicted of a felony loses the right to serve on a jury unless pardoned.

A person convicted of a violent crime loses the right to possess firearms or ammunition, and also handguns, unless pardoned.

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South Dakota

A person serving a sentence for a felony conviction after July 1, 2012, loses the rights to vote, to serve in legislative office, and to sit on a jury until completion of sentence, including payment of fines and restitution. For those convicted prior to July 1, 2012, the vote is lost only while serving a prison sentence, including parole, even if the sentence is suspended.

A person convicted of a violent crime or a drug felony loses the right to possess a firearm.  This right is restored automatically 15 years after completion of sentence, unless sooner by pardon.

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Tennessee

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, hold public office, and serve on a jury.  With some exceptions for serious crimes, the right to vote is restored upon completion of sentence, so long as all fines, fees, restitution, and child support obligations have been paid.  A certificate of restoration must be obtained from prison officials or the Board of Probation and Parole before re-registering to vote.  Those convicted of serious crimes must seek pardon before they may register vote.  The right to hold public office and to serve on a jury may be restored through a judicial restoration procedure upon expiration of sentence or by pardon.

A person convicted of a felony involving violence or drug trafficking may not possess any firearm.  Antique weapons are excepted from this prohibition. Persons convicted of any felony and domestic violence or DUI misdemeanors may not possess a handgun.  Firearms rights may generally be regained by a pardon, or judicial “certificate of restoration,” except that only expungement restores rights where the offense involved violence or drug-trafficking.  Persons with federal or out of state convictions may also petition the circuit court for judicial restoration.

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Texas

A person convicted of a felony (including “high crimes” specified in the constitution) loses the rights to vote, to hold public office, and to serve on a jury.  The right to vote is restored automatically upon completion of sentence, and the other rights are restored only by a pardon.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm.  A person may possess a firearm in their home five years after completion of sentence, but restoration is otherwise by pardon.

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Utah

A person convicted of a felony or election-related misdemeanor loses the right to vote, but only while incarcerated.  A person convicted of a felony also loses the right to sit on a jury, and regains eligibility by expungement.  The right to hold public office is regained by expungement, or after the passage of 10 years from the date of the most recent conviction, if all fines have been paid, probation or incarceration has been successfully completed, and parole has been granted.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm or any dangerous weapon.  This right may be restored by expungement or pardon.

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Vermont

A conviction does not affect the right to vote or hold public office.  But a person convicted of a felony loses the right to sit on a jury, which can only be restored by a pardon.

A conviction does not affect the right to possess a firearm, but a court may prohibit a person from having a firearm as a condition of granting probation.

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Virgin Islands

A sentence of imprisonment for any term of more than one year suspends all the civil rights of the person so sentenced, and the person forfeits all public offices and private trusts.  The right to vote is restored upon completion of sentence, including payment of court costs, and the right to stand for office depends upon being a qualified voter.  Jury eligibility is restored by pardon.

A person convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment for more than one year or misdemeanor domestic violence loses the right to possess a firearm or ammunition unless pardoned.

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Virginia

A person convicted of a felony loses the rights to vote, hold public office, and sit on a jury.  These rights may only be restored by the governor, through his constitutional pardon power.  Since 2016 these rights have been restored automatically through a series of executive orders, upon completion of sentence to all persons convicted of non-violent offenses, and after an additional three-year waiting period to those convicted of violent offenses.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm. Certain juvenile adjudications also count.  Restoration of this right is generally by a court in the county of residence.

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Washington

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, hold public office, and sit on a jury.  The right to vote may be restored by a certificate of discharge from the sentencing court or an administrative agency, which requirement payment of fines and restitution, except that a certificate is available five years after completion of all non-financial aspects of the sentence.  The vote may also be “provisionally restored” once a person is no longer in state prison or under community custody, but falling behind in payment of financial obligations may result in revocation (though waiver possible on a showing of hardship).  The right to hold office is restored with the vote, and jury eligibility is also restored when the sentence is discharged.  Rights may also be restored by petition to the Clemency and Pardons Board.

A person convicted of a “serious offense” (which includes violent, drug, and sex offenses), or any other felony or domestic violence crime, is prohibited from possessing a firearm or handgun.  This right can be restored by the executive upon a finding of rehabilitation, or by the courts in less serious cases after a waiting period (5 years for felonies and 3 years for misdemeanors).

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West Virginia

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, hold public office, and sit on a jury.  The rights to vote and hold office are restored automatically upon completion of sentence except that those convicted of bribery may not hold office unless pardoned.  The right to sit on a jury is restored by a pardon.

A person convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment for more than one year or of domestic violence loses the right to possess a firearm, unless the crime is expunged or pardoned.

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Wisconsin

A person convicted of a felony loses the rights to vote and serve on a jury, and regains them upon completion of sentence.  A person convicted of a felony or a specified misdemeanor loses the right to hold public office unless pardoned.

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to possess a firearm unless pardoned.

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Wyoming

A person convicted of a felony loses the right to vote, hold public office, and sit on a jury.  For those with no more than one non-violent felony conviction, the right to vote is restored automatically by the Department of Corrections after completion of sentence.  For all others, the right to vote may only be restored by the governor.

A person convicted of a violent felony loses the right to possess a firearm unless pardoned.  A person convicted of drug crimes may not obtain a concealed-weapon permit, except that a misdemeanant may regain eligibility after one year.  A person convicted of a misdemeanor crime of violence within three years may be denied a permit.

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