Books and articles


Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction: Law Policy & Practice

Margaret Colgate Love, Jenny Roberts & Wayne A. Logan (NACDL/West, 3d ed. 2018-2019)

Beyond Punishment? A Normative Account of the Collateral Legal Consequences of Conviction

Zachary Hoskins (Oxford University Press 2019)

Prisoners of Politics: Breaking the Cycle of Mass Incarceration

Rachel Elise Barkow (Harvard University Press 2019)

Punishment Without Crime: How Our Massive Misdemeanor System Traps the Innocent and Makes America More Unequal

Alexandra Natapoff (Basic Books 2018)

Misdemeanorland: Criminal Courts and Social Control in an Age of Broken Windows Policing

Issa Kohler-Hausmann (Princeton University Press 2018)

Locking Up Our Own: Crime and Punishment in Black America

James Forman Jr. (Farrar, Straus and Giroux 2017)

Locked In: The True Causes of Mass Incarceration-and How to Achieve Real Reform

John F. Pfaff (Basic Books 2017)

The Eternal Criminal Record

James B. Jacobs (Harvard University Press 2015)

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Color-Blindness

Michelle Alexander (The New Press 2010)

But They All Come Back: Facing the Challenges of Prisoner Reentry

Jeremy Travis (Urban Institute Press 2005)

Invisible Punishment: The Collateral Consequences of Mass Imprisonment

Meda Chesney-Lind & Marc Mauer, eds. (The New Press 2003)


Gundy and the Civil-Criminal Divide

Jenny Roberts, Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, Vol. 17, No. 207 (2019)

Expungement of Criminal Convictions: An Empirical Study

J.J. Prescott & Sonja B. Starr, Harv. L. Rev., forthcoming (2019)

Incorporating Collateral Consequences into Criminal Procedure

Paul T. Crane, 54 Wake Forest L. Rev. 1 (2019)

Third-Class Citizenship: The Escalating Legal Consequences of Committing a ‘Violent’ Crime

Michael M. O’Hear, J. Crim. L. & Criminology, forthcoming (2019)

Transcending the Stigma of a Criminal Record: A Proposal to Reform State Bar Character and Fitness Evaluations

Tarra Simmons, 128 Yale L.J. Forum 759 (Feb. 2019)

Managing the Risk of Violent Recidivism: Lessons From Legal Responses to Sexual Offenses

Michael M. O’Hear, B.U. L. Rev., Forthcoming (2019)

The Effort to Reform the Federal Criminal Justice System

Shon Hopwood, 128 Yale L.J. Forum 791 (Feb. 2019)

Are Collateral Consequences Deserved?

Brian Murray, 95 Notre Dame L. Rev., forthcoming (2019)

Learning from Recent State Drug Sentencing Reform Efforts

Douglas A. Berman & Steven L. Chanenson, 31 Fed. Sent. Rept. 169 (2019)

The High Stakes of Low-Level Criminal Justice

Alexandra Natapoff, 128 Yale L.J. 1648 (2019)

Wrongful Collateral Consequences

Abigail E. Horn, 87 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 315 (2019)

Collateral Consequences and Criminal Justice: Future Policy and Constitutional Directions

Gabriel J. Chin, 102 Marq. L. Rev. 233 (2018)

The Juvenile Record Myth

Joy Radice, 106 Georgetown L. J. 365 (2018)

Collateral Consequences of Juvenile Court Involvement

Hillela Simpson & Serena Holthe, 2018 Clearinghouse Rev. 1 (2018)

Infamous Misdemeanors and the Grand Jury Clause

Gabriel “Jack” Chin & John Ormonde, 102 U. Minnesota L. Rev. 1911 (2018)

Does “Ban the Box” Help or Hurt Low-Skilled Workers? – Statistical Discrimination and Employment Outcomes When Criminal Histories are Hidden

Jennifer Doleac & Benjamin Hansen (2018)

Unmarked? Criminal Record Clearing and Employment Outcomes

Jeffrey Selbin, Justin McCrary & Joshua Epstein, 108 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 1 (2018)

Executive Clemency in the United States

Margaret Love, Oxford Research Encyclopedia (July 2018)

An Analysis of Certificates of Rehabilitation in the United States

Wesley McCann, Melissa A. Kowalski, Craig Hemmens & Mary K. Stohr, Corrections (2018)

Beyond the Box: Safeguarding Employment for Arrested Employees

Shelle Shimizu, 128 Yale L.J. Forum 226 (Oct. 2018)

Criminal Employment Law

Benjamin Levin, 39 Cardozo L. Rev. 2265 (2018)

The Collateral Consequence Conundrum: Comparative Genealogy, Current Trends, and Future Scenarios

Alessandro Corda, in After Imprisonment, Studies in Law, Politics and Society, Vol. 77, Emerald Publishing Limited (2018), pp. 69-97

Symposium: Managing Collateral Consequences in the Information Age

30 Fed. Sent. Rept. No. 4-5 (April/June 2018)

Forgiving, Forgetting, and Forgoing: Legislative Experiments in Restoring Rights and Status

Margaret Colgate Love, 30 Fed. Sent. Rept. 231 (2018)

Beyond Totem and Taboo: Toward a Narrowing of American Criminal Record Exceptionalism

Alessandro Corda, 30 Fed. Sent. Rept. 241 (2018)

Expungement in Indiana: A Radical Experiment and How It Is Working So Far

Josh Gaines &  Margaret Love, 30 Fed. Sent. Rept. 252 (2018)

Relief from a Criminal Conviction in North Carolina:  Forgetting, Forgiving, and Forgoing

John Rubin, 30 Fed. Sent. Rept. 267 (2018)

Nevada Enacts Sweeping Criminal Justice Reform, with an Eye Toward Collateral Consequences

Tick Segerblom & Nicolas Anthony, 30 Fed. Sent. Rept. 273 (2018)

Access-to-Justice Challenges for Expungement in Tennessee

Joy Radice, 30 Fed. Sent. Rept. 277 (2018)

Building a Functioning Framework for Reentry and Restoration of Rights: Lessons from California’s “Mystery House”

Eliza Hersh & Gabriel J. Chin, 30 Fed. Sent. Rept. 283 (2018)

Leveraging Marijuana Reform to Enhance Expungement Practices

Douglas A. Berman, 30 Fed. Sent. Rept. 305 (2018)

Structuring Relief for Sex Offenders from Registration and Notification Requirements: Learning from Foreign Jurisdictions and from the Model Penal Code: Sentencing

Nora V. Demleitner, 30 Fed. Sent. Rept. 317 (2018)

Informed Misdemeanor Sentencing

Jenny Roberts, 46 Hofstra L. Rev. 177 (2017)

American Exceptionalism in Community Supervision

Alessandro Corda & Michelle S. Phelps, APPA-PERSPECTIVES, Spring 2017, pp. 20-27

A Holistic Framework to Aid Responsible Plea-Bargaining By Prosecutors

Aditi Juneja, 11 N.Y.U. J.L. & Liberty 600 (2017)

The Collateral Consequences of Acquittal

Benjamin D. Geffen, 20 U.Penn. J. L. & Social Change 1 (2017)


Alexandra Natapoff, in Academy for Justice, A Report on Scholarship and Criminal Justice Reform, vol. 1 at 71 (Erik Luna ed., 2017)

The Reintegrative State

Joy Radice, 66 Emory L.J. 1314 (2017)

Pardon and Parole in Prohibition-Era New York: Discretionary Justice in the Administrative State

Carolyn Strange, Osgoode Hall Law Journal, Vol. 54(3) (2017)

Erasing the Mark of a Criminal Past: Ex-Offenders’ Expectations and Experiences with Record Clearance

Ericka B. Adams, Elsa Y. Chen & Rosella Chapman, Punishment & Society Volume 19, Number 1 (January 2017), p. 23-52

Measuring the Creative Plea Bargain

Thea Johnson, 92 Ind. L. J. 901 (2017)

Dismissals as Justice

Anna Roberts, 69 Al. L. Rev. 327 (2017)

Unstitching Scarlet Letters? Prosecutorial Discretion and Expungement

Brian M. Murray, 86 Fordham L. Rev. (2017)

Criminal Record Questions in the Era of “Ban the Box”

Mike Vuolo, Sarah Lageson & Christopher Uggen, 16 Criminology & Public Policy 139 (2017)

The President’s Role in Advancing Criminal Justice Reform

Barack Obama, 130 Harv. L. Rev. 811, 838 (2017)

Obama’s Clemency Legacy: An Assessment

Margaret Colgate Love, 29 Fed. Sent. Rept. 271 (2017)

Designed to Fail: The President’s Deference to the Department of Justice in Advancing Criminal Justice Reform

Rachel E. Barkow & Mark Osler, 59 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 387 (2017)

Expungement, Defamation and False Light: Is What Happened before What Really Happened or Is There a Chance for a Second Act in America?

Doris Del Tosto Brogan, 49 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 1 (2017)

“The Mellow Pot-Smoker”: White Individualism in Marijuana Legalization Campaigns

David Schlussel, 105 Calif. L. Rev. 885 (2017)

Leading with Conviction: The Transformative Role of Formerly Incarcerated Leaders in Reducing Mass Incarceration

Susan P. Sturm & Haran Tae, Columbia Public Law Research Paper No. 14-547 (2017)

Legal Aid with Conviction: How to Combat Barriers to Reentry by Using the Law

Vidhi Sanghavi Joshi, Shriver Center (June 2017)

Criminal Record Questions in the Era of “Ban the Box”

Mike Vuolo, Sarah Lageson, Christopher Uggen, 16 Crim. & Pub. Policy 139 (2017)

Can We Forgive Those Who Batter? Proposing an End to the Collateral Consequences of Civil Domestic Violence Cases

Joann Sahl, 100 Marq. L. Rev. 527 (2017)

Collateral Consequences

Gabriel J. Chin, in Academy for Justice, A Report on Scholarship and Criminal Justice Reform, vol. 4 at 371 (Erik Luna ed., 2017)

Over-Incarceration and Disenfranchisement

Murat C. Mungan, Public Choice, No. 3-4 (2017)

Statistical (and Racial) Discrimination, ‘Banning the Box’, and Crime Rates

Murat C. Mungan, George Mason Law & Economics Research Paper No. 17-13 (2017)

More Justice and Less Harm: Reinventing Access to Criminal History Records

Alessandro Corda, 60 How. L.J. 1 (2017)

Criminological Perspective on Juvenile Sex Offender Policy

Franklin E. Zimring, in The Safer Society Handbook of Assessment and Treatment with Adolescents Who Have Sexually Abused (2017)

Briefing the Supreme Court: Promoting Science or Myth?

Melissa Hamilton, 26 Emory L.J. Online 2021 (2017)

Sex Offender Registration and Notification

Wayne A. Logan, in Academy for Justice, A Report on Scholarship and Criminal Justice Reform, vol. 4 at 397 (Erik Luna ed., 2017)

Ban the Box, Convictions, and Public Sector Employment

Terry-Ann Craigie (2017)

Recognizing Redemption: Old Criminal Records and Employment Outcomes

Peter Leasure & Tia Stevens Andersen, N.Y.U. Rev. L. & Soc. Change, The Harbinger, Vol. 41 (2016), pp. 271-286

Revitalizing the Clemency Process

Paul Larkin, 39 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 833 (2016)

Portmanteau Ascendant: Post-Release Regulations and Sex Offender Recidivism

J.J. Prescott, 48 Conn. L. Rev. 1035 (2016)

Ban the Box, Criminal Records, and Statistical Discrimination: A Field Experiment

Amanda Agan & Sonja Starr, Univ. of Mich. Law & Econ. Research Paper No. 16-012 (2016)

A New Era for Expungement Law Reform? Recent Developments at the State and Federal Levels 

Brian Murray, 10 Harv. L. & Pol’y Rev. 361 (2016)

Prosecuting Collateral Consequences

Eisha Jain, 104 Geo. L. J. (2016)

The Effectiveness of Certificates of Relief as Collateral Consequence Relief Mechanisms: An Experimental Study

Peter Leasure & Tia Stevens Andersen, Yale L. & Pol’y Rev. Inter Alia, Vol. 35 (11/7/2016)

Two Cultures of Punishment

Joshua Kleinfeld, 68 Stan. L. Rev. 933, 965-71 (2016)

Reclaiming the Importance of the Defendant’s Testimony: Prior Conviction Impeachment and the Fight Against Implicit Stereotyping

Anna Roberts, 83 U. Chi. L. Rev. 835 (2016)

Legislating Forgiveness: A Study of Post-Conviction Certificates as Policy to Address the Employment Consequences of a Conviction

Heather Garretson, B.U. Pub. Int. L.J. (2016)

Ants Under the Refrigerator? Removing Expunged Cases from Commercial Background Checks

Sharon Dietrich, Criminal Justice (Winter 2016)

Judicial Challenges to the Collateral Impact of Criminal Convictions: Is True Change in the Offing?

Nora Demleitner, 90 N.Y.U. L. Rev. Online 36 (2016)

No Woman No Crime: Ban the Box, Employment, and Upskilling

Daniel Shoag & Stan Veuger, HKS Working Paper No. 16-015 (2016)

American Criminal Record Exceptionalism 

Kevin Lapp, 14 Ohio St. J. Crim. Law 303 (2016)

Collateral Consequences and the Preventive State

Sandra Mayson, 91 Notre Dame L. Rev. 301 (2015)

Collateral Damage: A Public Housing Consequences of the ‘War on Drugs’

Lahny Silva, 5 U.C. Irvine L. Rev. 783 (2015)

When Mercy Seasons Justice: Interstate Recognition of Ex-Offender Rights

Wayne A. Logan, 29 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 1 (2015)

Justice Department Administration of the President’s Pardon Power: A Case Study in Institutional Conflict of Interest

Margaret Love, 47 U. Tol. L. Rev. 89 (2015)

Expunging America’s Rap Sheet in the Information Age

Jenny Roberts, 2015 Wis. L. Rev. 321 (2015)

Managing Collateral Consequences in the Sentencing Process: The Revised Sentencing Articles of the Model Penal Code

Margaret Love, 2015 Wis. L. Rev. 247 (2015)

Database Infamia: Exit from the Sex Offender Registries

Wayne A. Logan, 2015 Wis. L. Rev. 119 (2015)

Excavating Expungement Law: A Comprehensive Approach

Anna Kessler, 87 Temp. L. Rev. 403 (2015) (comment)

Preventing Background Screeners from Reporting Expunged Criminal Cases

Sharon Dietrich, Shriver Center (April 2015) [registration required]

Arrests as Regulation

Eisha Jain, 67 Stan. L. Rev. 809 (2015)

Is employment discrimination against ex-offenders immoral?

James Jacobs, Compilation of posts on discrimination against those with criminal records from the Volokh Conspiracy blog (Feb. 2015)

Misdemeanor Decriminalization

Alexandra Natapoff, 68 Vanderbilt L. Rev. 1055 (2015)

Civil Disabilities in an Era of Diminished Privacy: A Disability Approach for the Use of Criminal Records in Hiring

Andrew Elmore, 64 DuPaul L. Rev. 991 (2015)

Criminal Histories in Public Housing 

Lahny Silva, Wis. L. Rev., Vol. 5, No. 4 (2015)

I Did My Time: The Transformation of Indiana’s Expungement Law

Joseph C. Dugan, 90 Ind. L.J. 1321 (2015)

Beyond Title VII: Rethinking Race, Ex-Offender Status, and Employment Discrimination in the Information Age

Kimani Paul-Emile, 100 Va. L. Rev. 893 (2014)

Street Vendors, Taxicabs, and Exclusion Zones: The Impact of Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions at the Local Level

Amy P. Meek, 75 Ohio St. L.J. 1 (2014)

Sex Offender Registries Have Gone Too Far 

Five-part series on sex offender registries published by, written by Matt Mellema, Chanakya Sethi and Jane Shim (2014)

Reinvigorating the Federal Pardon Process: What the President Can Learn from the States

Margaret Colgate Love, 9 U. St. Thomas L. Rev. 730 (2013)

Crashing the Misdemeanor System

Jenny Roberts, 70 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 1089 (2013)

Informal Collateral Consequences

Wayne Logan, 88 Wash. L. Rev. 1103 (2013)

Beyond the Sentence – Understanding Collateral Consequences

Sarah B. Berson, NIJ Journal (May 2013)

Governors! Seize the Law: A Call to Expand the Use of Pardons to Provide Relief from Deportation

Stacy Caplow, 22 B.U. Pub. Int.. L. J. 293 (2013)

Casual Ostracism: Jury Exclusion on the Basis of Criminal Convictions

Anna Roberts, 98 Minn. L. Rev. 592 (2013)

Ex-offenders face tens of thousands of legal restrictions, bias and limits on their rights

Lorelei Laird, ABA Journal (June 1, 2013)

The New Civil Death:  Rethinking Punishment in the Era of Mass Conviction

Gabriel J. Chin, 160 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1789 (2012)

What’s in a Name?  A Lot if the Name is “Felon

Margaret Love, The Crime Report (March 13, 2012)

Clemency in the State of Delaware: History and Proposals for Change

Lieutenant Governor Matthew Denn, 13 Del. L. Rev. 55 (2012)


Alexandra Natapoff, 85 Southern California Law Review 101 (2012)

Administering Justice:  Removing Statutory Barriers to Reentry

Joy Radice, 83 U. Colo. L. Rev. 715 (2012)

Paying their Debt to Society:  Forgiveness, Redemption, and the Uniform Collateral Consequences of Conviction Act

Margaret Colgate Love, 54 How. L.J. 753 (2011)

Why Misdemeanors Matter:  Defining Effective Advocacy in the Lower Criminal Courts

Jenny Roberts, 45 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 277 (2011)

Making Padilla Practical:  Defense Counsel and Collateral Consequences at Guilty Plea

Gabriel J. Chin, 54 How. L.J. 675 (2011)

Expungement of Criminal Records: “The Big Lie”

Margaret Colgate Love, The Crime Report (June 23, 2011)

‘Collateral’ No More — The Practical Imperative for Holistic Defense in a Post-Padilla World…Or, How to Achieve Consistently Better Results for Clients

McGregor Smyth, 31 St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 139 (2011)

The Collateral Consequences of Padilla v. Kentucky: Is Forgiveness Now Constitutionally Required?

Margaret Colgate Love, 160 U. Penn. L. Rev. Pennumbra 113 (2011)

Collateral Consequences After Padilla v. Kentucky:  From Punishment to Regulation

Margaret Colgate Love, 31 St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 87 (2011)

Expungement of Criminal Records: The Big Lie 

Margaret Colgate Love, The Crime Report, June 23, 2011

The Twilight of the Pardon Power

Margaret Colgate Love, 100 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 1169 (2010)

Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions: Confronting Issues of Race and Dignity

Michael Pinard, 85 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 457 (2010)

Clean Slate: Expanding Expungements & Pardons for Non-Violent Federal Offenders

Lahny R. Silva, 79 U. Cin. L. Rev. 196 (2010)

Ignorance is Effectively Bliss: Collateral Consequences, Silence, and Misinformation in the Guilty Plea Process

Jenny Roberts, 95 Iowa L. Rev. 119 (2009)

Redemption in the Presence of Widespread Criminal Background Checks

A. Blumstein and K. Nakamura, Criminology 47, no. 2 (2009): 328-331

The Expanding Scope, Use and Availability of Criminal Records

James B. Jacobs & Tamara Crepet, 11 N.Y.U. J. Legis. & Pub. Policy 177 (2008)

Alternatives to Conviction: Deferred Adjudication as a Way of Avoiding Collateral Consequences 

Margaret Colgate Love, 22 Fed. Sent. Rep. 6 (2009)

Adverse Employment Consequences Triggered by Criminal Conviction:  Recent Cases Interpret State Statutes Prohibiting Discrimination

Christine Neylon O’Brien & Jonathan J. Darrow, 42 Wake Forest L. Rev. 991 (2007)

Mass Incarceration and the Proliferation of Criminal Records

James B. Jacobs, 3 St. Thomas L. Rev. 387 (2006)

An Integrated Perspective on the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions and Reentry Issues Faced by Formerly Incarcerated Individuals

Michael Pinard, 86 Boston U. L. Rev. 623 (2006)

The Case for Treating Ex-Offenders As A Suspect Class

Ben Geiger, Comment, 94 Cal. L. Rev. 1191 (2006)

Holistic is Not a Bad Word: A Criminal Defense Attorney’s Guide to Using Invisible Punishments as an Advocacy Strategy

McGregor Smyth, 36 U. Tol. L. Rev. 479 (2005)

The Somewhat Suspect Class: Towards a Constitutional Framework for Evaluating Occupational Restrictions Affecting People with Criminal Records

Miriam J. Aukerman, 7 J.L. Soc’y 18 (2005)

Navigating the Hidden Obstacles to Ex-Offender Reentry

Anthony Thompson, 45 B. C. L. Rev. 255 (2004)

Starting Over With a Clean Slate:  In Praise of a Forgotten Section of the Model Penal Code

Margaret Colgate Love, 30 Fordham Urb. L.J. 1705 (2003)

Invisible Punishment: An Instrument of Social Exclusion

Jeremy Travis, from Invisible Punishment: The Collateral Consequences of Mass Imprisonment (The New Press 2003)

Effective Assistance of Counsel and the Consequences of Guilty Pleas

Gabriel J. Chin & Richard W. Holmes, Jr., 87 Cornell L. Rev. 697 (2002)

Preventing Internal Exile: The Need for Restrcitions on Collateral Sentencing Consequences

Nora V. Demleitner, 11 Stan. L. & Pol’y Rev. 153 (1999)

Related blog posts:

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  • “Executive Clemency in the United States” (2/5/2019) - This is the title of CCRC Executive Director Margaret Love’s new article for the Oxford Research Encyclopedia.  The article describes the historic role played by the executive pardon power in reducing punishments (including collateral ones) and explains clemency’s diminished vitality and reliability in modern times in most states and in the federal system.  Love concludes that “[i]t appears unlikely that an [...]
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  • New edition of collateral consequences treatise now available (1/9/2019) - The 2018-2019 edition of the West/NACDL treatise on collateral consequences is now available for purchase, at a publisher’s promotional discount. Wayne A. Logan has joined Margaret Love and Jenny Roberts as a co-author of this comprehensive resource: Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction: Law, Policy & Practice. This third edition of the treatise has been entirely updated, and includes new material on [...]
  • Comparison of collateral consequences in Europe and the U.S. (11/9/2018) - Alessandro Corda has a new article that compares the treatment of regulatory collateral consequences in the United States and in European legal systems.  He argues that the primary difference is that in Europe proportionality is central to punishment schemes, and that sentencing courts must consider the impact of all combined sanctions on the defendant, including collateral consequences, in deciding whether a [...]
  • Marijuana decriminalization drives expungement reform (10/29/2018) - The national trend toward expanding opportunities for restoration of rights after conviction has continued to accelerate throughout 2018.  By our count, so far this year alone 31 states have broadened existing second chance laws or enacted entirely new ones, enhancing the prospects for successful reentry and reintegration for many thousands of Americans.  On November 6, Florida could take the most politically [...]
  • BU Law Review publishes symposium on misdemeanors (7/6/2018) - In May 2018 the Boston University Law Review published a symposium titled “Misdemeanor Machinery: The Hidden Heart of the American Criminal Justice System.”  Links to the articles, which were presented at a conference held in November 2017, are below.  The conference also benefited from presentations by a number of distinguished academics, judges, and policy-makers, including Alexandra Natapoff, Issa Kohler-Hausmann, Jeffrey [...]
  • “Managing Collateral Consequences in the Information Age” (7/2/2018) - “Managing Collateral Consequences in the Information Age” is the title of a symposium issue of the Federal Sentencing Reporter.  It is composed of papers prepared for a Roundtable conference on criminal records issues jointly sponsored by the American Law Institute and the National Conference of State Legislatures in January 2018, and associated primary source materials.  The issue’s Table of Contents shows the breadth [...]
  • “Challenging the Punitiveness of ‘New-Generation’ SORN Laws“ (6/8/2018) - Wayne Logan has a terrific new article on the recent challenges to sex offender registration and notification laws, forthcoming in the New Criminal Law Review.  Here is the abstract: Sex offender registration and notification (SORN) laws have been in effect nationwide since the 1990s, and publicly available registries today contain information on hundreds of thousands of individuals. To date, most [...]