Judicial Expungement, Sealing, and Set-aside
Updated: November 2017
|State||General Authority (incl. some felonies)||First Offenders||Deferred adjudication (incl. probationary sentences)||Misdemeanors Only||Pardoned Offenses||Juvenile Adjudications||Non-Conviction Records|
|AL|| ||Most delinquency adjudications sealed after final discharge or court order if no pending criminal proceedings. May petition to have records destroyed five years after age of majority. Ala. Code §§ 12-15-136, 12-15-137.||Courts may expunge nonconviction records of nonviolent felonies and misdemeanors, including cases where charges dismissed. Records remain available to government regulatory or licensing agencies, utilities, banks and financial institutions. Ala. Code §§ 15-27-1, -2.
State record repository must remove arrest record must be removed from rap sheet after 30 days if not charged or if cleared of the offense. Ala. Code § 41-9-625.
|AK||Court may suspend imposition of sentence and "set aside" conviction after successful completion of probation for certain offenses. Alaska Stat. § 12.55.085. May not be used as predicate, but limited use for enhancement of sentence. Similar suspended entry of judgement and dismissal also available, with exceptions for certain serious offenses. § 12.55.078. No conviction results and court records may not be published online, § 22.35.030, but no sealing.|| ||Records of juvenile adjudications are generally confidential and unavailable to the public. Court seals most juvenile records at age 18 or release of jurisdiction if later. Alaska Stat. § 47.12.300(c), (e). |
If charged as adult, most juvenile records sealed five years after completed sentence or after records made public. § 47.12.300(f).
|Nonconviction records generally unavailable to the public. Alaska Stat. § 12.62.160(b)(8). Additional sealing of nonconviction records in the case of mistaken identity or false accusation if proven beyond reasonable doubt. § 12.62.180(b). Courts may not publish online records of cases resulting in acquittal or dismissal. § 22.35.030.|
|AZ||"Set-aside" upon discharge for all but violent and sex offenses. Relieves collateral consequences, but does not seal record and conviction must be disclosed. Predicate. Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-907.||If 18 years or older, may apply to set aside juvenile adjudication upon discharge from probation or absolute discharge for certain offenses. Predicate effect. Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 8-348; 8-207, 13-501.||Non-conviction records may not be sealed or expunged but may be amended to note person cleared of any arrests or indictments. Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-4051.|
|AR||Minor felonies and drug convictions eligible for sealing after 5 yrs. (if no more than one prior felony), misdemeanors immediately after completion of sentence; Serious violent and sexual offenses ineligible. Sealed conviction "shall be deemed as a matter of law never to have occurred, and the person may state that the underlying conduct did not occur and that a record of the person that was sealed does not exist." Predicate effect. Ark Code Ann. § 16-90-1401 et seq.||Deferred adjudication for first-time offenders may lead to sealing (serious violent felonies and certain sex offenses ineligible). Ark. Code Ann. §§ 16-93-303, 16-93-314 (b).||Expungement of in human trafficking cases. Ark. Code Ann. § 16-90-1412.||If ineligible for sealing may seek pardon, which results in automatic sealing for all but a few serious offenses. Ark Code Ann. § 16-90-1411.||For most offenses, may apply to set aside adjudications upon majority if discharged from probation or absolute discharge and no subsequent conviction or pending charge. Ark. Rev. Stat. § 8-348. Set-aside relieves penalties and disabilities, with exceptions for those imposed by Dept. of Transportation.||Arrest records may be sealed if no charges are filed within one year, § 16-90-1409, if charges dismissed, or if no conviction obtained. § 16-90-1410.|
|CA||Courts may issue certificates of rehabilitation, which affect consideration for employment, operate as first step in pardon process. See Cal. Bus. & Prof. § 480(b) and chart #5.|
Set-aside or dismissal for probationers, misdemeanants, and minor felony offenders' rights restored and disabilities removed, may be used as predicate offense and disclosed in certain contexts. Does not seal or otherwise limit access to records.
|Deferred sentencing for felony convictions, treated as misdemeanors following successful completion of probation. No sealing except for certain under-age misdemeanants. Predicate effect. Cal. Penal §§ 17(b), 1203.4, 1203.4a, 1203.41. |
Post-plea deferred entry of judgement & probation available for first minor drug offense. See Cal. Penal § 1000, et seq. Successful completion results in dismissal of charges, and plea may be withdrawn upon application to court. § 1203.43.
|Misdemeanors under age 18 when crime committed and who are otherwise eligible may apply to have record sealed. Cal. Penal § 1203.45(a).||Records generally confidential, with exceptions for serious offenses. Cal Rules of Court, Rule 5.552. Most adjudications may be sealed, subject to the court's discretion, either 5 years after termination of jurisdiction or immediately upon reaching age 18. Cal. Welf. & Inst. § 781. Additional eligibility requirements for certain serious offenses. Records are confidential and destroyed after 5 years.||Mandatory sealing of most non-conviction records upon petition. Cal. Penal § 851.91 (effective 2018).
In any case where a person has been arrested and an accusatory pleading has been filed, but where no conviction has occurred, the court may, with the concurrence of the prosecuting attorney, order that the records be sealed and destroyed. Cal. Penal § 851.8(d). Pre-trial diversion records sealed after 2 years. § 851.87.
|CO||Court imposing a non-prison sentence may relieve any collateral consequence. Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 18-1.3-107; 18-1.3-213; and 18-1.3-303. |
Sealing available for select controlled substance offenses committed after 2008. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 24-72-704 (convictions between 2008 and 2011 - 10 yr. waiting period), § 24-72-705 (convictions after July 1, 2011 - 1 to 10 yr. waiting period).
May deny conviction in most situations. § 24-72-703(4)(d).
|Deferred adjudication, sentencing, and diversion may lead to sealing. Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 24-72-308(1)(a) (deferred adjudication); §§ 18-1.3-101, 24-72-702 (pretrial diversion); 18-1.3-102 (deferred sentencing); § 18-13-122(a) (deferred adjudication/diversion for underage alcohol offenses).||Petty offenses and municipal violations (except for traffic offenses). See Colo. Rev. Stat. § 24-72-708.|
Decriminalized misdemeanor marijuana possession/use, § 24-72-710 (effective August 2017); Victims of human trafficking, § 24-72-706; posting a private image for harassment or pecuniary gain, § 24-72-709; theft of public transportation services by fare evasion, § 24-72-707; underage possession or consumption of alcohol or marijuana, § 18-13-122(13).
May deny conviction in most situations. § 24-72-703(4)(d).
|Expungement available for all but serious violent offenses. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 19-1-306. Court must advise at time of sentencing. Automatic for minor offenses, and no significant waiting period otherwise, except for repeat/mandatory sentence offenders. The person and court may indicate that no record exists. .||Courts must seal, upon petition, or request at time of disposition, a criminal record in cases that were not charged, that were resolved through diversion, completely dismissed, or resulted in acquittal. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 24-72-702. May deny conviction in most cases. § 24-72-702(f)(I).
Arrests resulting from mistaken identity may be expunged if no charges were filed. § 24-72-701.5
|CT||See entry for pardoned convictions.||Six programs for deferred adjudication may result in "erasure" of record. May deny conviction; predicate unless records destroyed. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-142a. Erasure prohibits disclosure by government, bars reliance in any subsequent criminal proceeding, and permits the person to swear under oath that the crime never occurred.||Erasure available for those convicted as "youthful offenders" upon reaching age 21 if no subsequent felony conviction. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-76o. May deny conviction. § 31-51i(c) - (f).||Pardoned conviction automatically "erased" after 3 years; records destroyed; may deny conviction. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-142a(d). Pardons routinely available from Board of Pardons and Parole.||Erasure of police and court records available at age 17 and after 2-4 years have elapsed, depending on seriousness of offense. Must have no subsequent convictions or pending charges. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 46b-146. Employers may not require disclosure of erased record or discriminate based on such a record. § 31-51i(c) - (f).||Erasure of criminal records where charges have been dismissed or nolled, or where person has been acquitted; may deny arrest under oath. Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 54-142a; 31-51i(d).|
|DE||Expungement in "Probation Before Judgment" under Del. Code tit.11 § 4218, and for the first offenders controlled substances diversion program, tit. 16 § 4767. See Del. Code Ann. tit. 11 §§ 4372-74 (see non-conviction records). Expungement mandatory for misdemeanors, discretionary for felonies.||Expungement may be available if unconditionally pardoned of some misdemeanor & violation convictions. Del. Code Ann. tit 11, § 4375.||Mandatory & discretionary expungement for juvenile delinquency records. Del. Code Ann. tit.10, § 1014, et seq.||Expungement where case results in acquittal or other termination of action in favor of the accused, including in probation before judgement cases, but prior conviction may disqualify. Del. Code Ann. tit. 11 § 4372. Expungement mandatory where charges involve misdemeanor, discretionary in felony cases. §§ 4373, 437.|
|DC||Sealing for actual innocence, see D.C. Code § 16-802; decriminalized conduct, see § 16-803.02.||Sealing for selected misdemeanors and one felony (failure to appear) after waiting period. May deny conviction in most situations; certain law enforcement, court, employer/licensing access. D.C. Code §§ 16-803, 16-806.||Upon majority, sealing after a two-year waiting period with no subsequent convictions. D.C. Code § 16-2335(a).||Court authorized to seal non-conviction records after waiting period; may deny conviction in most situations; certain law enforcement, court, & employer/licensing access. D.C. Code §§ 16-803, 16-806. Fugitive from justice arrests may be sealed under § 16-803.01|
|FL||Adjudication may be withheld and defendant placed on probation for second and third degree felonies if requested by prosecutor or if court makes findings of mitigating circumstances; no conviction results and sealing for certain first offenders (no prior record) after 10 years. Fla. Stat. Ann. §§ 948.01(2), 943.0585(2)(h), 775.08435; Fla. Crim. P. Rule 3.670. Sealing defined in § 943045(14); record remains available to law enforcement, certain employment. .||Records of juvenile adjudications are generally confidential except for serious offenses. See Fla. Stat. § 985.04(2). Expungement for nonjudicial record of minor's arrest (non-violent misdemeanor, first offense) upon successful completion of diversion program. Fla. Stat. Ann. § 943.0582. Expungement defined as destruction of record. § 943045(13).||Court may order sealing/expungement of non-conviction records, with certain exceptions. Prior or subsequent felony & certain misdemeanor convictions are disqualifying. Expungement results in destruction of record; sealing permits limited law enforcement, employment, licensing access. Fla. Stat. Ann. §§ 943.0585, 943.059.
|GA||First offender drug possession convictions may be restricted pursuant to Ga. Code Ann. § 35-3-37(h)(2)(B), making them unavailable to public or licensing boards.||Discharge without adjudication after completion of probation "completely exonerate[s] the defendant of any criminal purpose and shall not affect any of his or her civil rights or liberties." Ga. Code Ann. §§ 42-8-60, 42-8-62. Restores firearms privileges. 1974 Ga. Op. Att'y Gen. 48 (1974); Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-131(f). No sealing but certain restrictions on employer access to records. § 35-3-34.||Records of youthful (under 21) misdemeanor convictions may be "restricted" after five years, making them unavailable to public or licensing boards. § 35-3-37(j)(4)(A).||Sealing upon motion to the court after a two-year waiting period and finding of rehabilitation. Ga. Code Ann. § 15-11-701(b).||If released before indictment or acquitted, record may be restricted after waiting period depending on seriousness of charges.. Ga. Code Ann. § 35-3-37(h)(1).|
|HI||Deferred adjudication for nonviolent first offenders, expungement after one year. First-time minor drug offenders on probation.|
Yes predicate. Haw. Rev. Stat.§§ 712-1255, 712-1256, 853-1, 853-4.,
|Court may expunge juvenile adjudication records. Haw. Rev. Stat. §§ 571-88(a). Juvenile records confidential and per se sealed. Id. § 571-84(e).||Only criminal justice agencies and agencies authorized by Hawaii's laws may access non-conviction information. In addition, upon application by the affected individual, the Attorney General "shall issue an expungement order annulling" record of arrest if no conviction results." Person "shall be treated as having not been arrested." Haw. Rev. Stat. § 831-3.2.|
|ID||Reduction of felony to misdemeanor after completion of probation, with concurrence of prosecutor if earlier than five years or if crime of violence; offenses requiring sex offender registration not eligible. Idaho Code Ann. § 19-2604(3). No sealing or expungement of record. Certain sex offenders may petition for "expungement" from registry after 10 years. Idaho Code Ann. § 18-8310.||Set-aside of plea where sentence deferred or suspended upon successful completion of probation, or reduction of felony to misdemeanor conviction; restores rights but does not expunge or seal (not applicable to sex offenses). Idaho Code Ann. §§ 19-2601, 19-2604(1), (2).||Juvenile convictions may be expunged after waiting period (except for serious offenses). Idaho Code Ann. § 20-525A||No provision except for unreturned arrest warrants. ICAR R. 32.|
|IL||Sealing for most misdemeanors and felonies after 3 year waiting period. Exceptions for limited number of serious offenses. 20 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 2630/5.2.|
Courts authorized to remove employment and licensing bars through certificate of good conduct. 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/5-5.5-55. In addition, consideration of conviction limited for certain licenses where court issues certificate of relief from disabilities. Id. at 5/5-5-5.
|Deferred adjudication for first-time non-violent offenders; expungement five years after successful completion of probation. Predicate offense if within five years. 20 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 2630/5.2; 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 570/410, 550/10,5/5-6-3.4. Record destroyed. §2630/5.2(a)(1)(E).|
2014 "Second Chance Probation" leading to expungement available to first time felony offenders charged with minor non-violent drug, fraud or theft felony offenses, 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/5-6-3.4. Yes predicate.
|Pardon instrument may authorize expungement. 20 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 2630/5.2(e);2630/5.2(a)(1)(E).||Automatic expungement of all but the most serious offenses after 0 to 2 year waiting period. 705 Ill. Comp. Stat. 405/5-915. Otherwise, expungement upon petition after 2 years, except for first degree murder and sex offenses. Id. Automatic sealing of non-expunged records. Id.||Records of arrest/charges that resulted in acquittal or dismissal may be expunged upon petition to the court. 20 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 2630/5.2(b). Record destroyed. 2630/5.2(a)(1)(E). Sealing available immediately upon disposition. 2630/5.2(g) (effective 2018).|
|IN||Expungement of most felony and misdemeanor offenses after waiting periods ranging from five to ten years. Ind. Code § 35-38-9-2 et seq. Expunged records "remain public," although must be "clearly and visibly marked" as being expunged. §35-38-9-7. Records of misdemeanors and minor felonies are automatically "sealed" upon expungement, which limits public access without a court order even to a prosecutor. § 35-38-9-6. Admin. Sealing from state police after 15 yrs. § 35-38-5-5.||Deferred adjudication for drug abusers and alcoholics charged with less serious felonies, if one prior and no charges pending. Ind. Code §§ 12-23-5-1 et seq., 12-23-6-1, 12-23-7-1 et seq.||Pardon "wipes out guilt" and automatically becomes basis for judicial expungement. State v. Bergman, 558 N.E.2d 1111 (Ind. Ct. App. 1990).||Court may expunge juvenile records at any time upon petition. Ind. Code § 31-39-8-2. Records are destroyed.||Nonconviction records and convictions vacated on appeal may be expunged and sealed after one year § 35-38-9-1. Once records are sealed "only a criminal justice agency may access the records without the order of a court." § 35-38-9-1(d).|
|IA||Deferred adjudication followed by expungement for first offenders. Predicate offense. Iowa Code §§ 907.3, 907.9.||Non-forcible felony records are preemptively non-public. Iowa Code Ann. §§ 232.147(3), 232.149B(1). Forcible felony records may be made non-public upon application. § 232.149A. Sealing at majority upon application to the court after a two-year waiting period if no subsequent offenses. § 232.150(1). Not reported on criminal history from age 21 on if no serious offenses between age 18 and 21. § 692.17(1).||Expungement of records of acquittals and dismissed charges (excluding deferred adjudication) after 180 days. § 901C.1. See also Iowa Code Ann. § 692.17(1) (records of acquittal/dismissal may not be stored in computer data system).|
|KS||Waiting period of 3-5 years; serious violent and sex offenses excluded. Also no expungement if required to register under KS offender registration act. Presumption in favor of expungement if court makes certain findings. May deny conviction except for certain law enforcement, employment and licensing contexts. No guns, predicate offense. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6614.||Expungement of juvenile adjudications, except for serious or violent offenses, following a two-year waiting period if the person is at least age 23 and has no subsequent offenses. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 38-2312(a) - (c).||May be expunged on petition to court where no conviction results from arrest (including where charges dismissed), subject to certain court-ordered grounds for disclosure. May deny arrest. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 22-2410.|
|KY||Specified Class D felonies may be vacated 5 years after completion of sentence, and the record expunged. Filing fee of $500. Effect of expungement destruction of record, except for index kept by court. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 431.073. |
Expungement of most misdemeanors/violations after five years with no felony or misdemeanor convictions. Mandatory for single offense history; discretionary for multiple offense history. May deny existence of record. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 431.078. Sex offenses or offenses against a child are ineligible.
|Deferred adjudication for Class D felonies; no conviction results, and expungement available if charges dismissed. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 431.076, 533.250-533.262.||Pardoned convictions may be set aside and expunged. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 431.078.||Vacatur and expungement available, upon petition after a two-year waiting period. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 610.330.||Court has discretion to expunge records of misdemeanor or felony cases that result in dismissals or acquittals and charges not resulting in indictment after 12 months. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 431.076, 510.300.|
|LA||Most misdemeanors (after five clean years), many felonies (after 10 clean years), and nonconviction records may be expunged. La. Code Crim. Proc. Art. 971 et seq. Record closed to public but remains available for law enforcement and certain licensing purposes. Predicate offense.||Deferred sentencing resulting in set-aside and dismissal for first felony convictions sentenced to probation. La. C.Cr.P. Art. 893(E). Expungement under Art. 978 upon successful completion.||Expungement available immediately upon termination of juvenile court jurisdiction for most adjudications. 5 year waiting period for certain serious offenses. La. Ch.C. Art. 918.||Both felony and misdemeanor non-conviction records may be expunged, but remain available to law enforcement and for certain licensing purposes. La. Code Crim. Proc. Art. 976.|
|ME||Records of convictions for Class E (misdemeanor) crimes committed between 18 and 21 may be sealed after 4 years if the person has not been convicted of any other offenses and has no charges pending. Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 15, §§ 2251, et seq.||Information re: pardoned convictions considered "non-conviction" data, though may be available to public upon request. Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 16, §§ 703(2), 705. Can delete from FBI record after 10 years per tit. 15, § 2167; and no sex offender registration if pardoned under tit. 34A, § 1125-A(6)(c).||Sealing, upon petition, for all adjudication records after a three-year, crime-free waiting period. Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 15 § 3308.||Non-conviction records may not be publicly disseminated after one year, but disclosure may be made to "[a]ny person who makes a specific inquiry . . . as to whether a named individual was summonsed, arrested or detained or had formal criminal charges initiated on a specific date." Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 16, §§ 703, 705.|
|MD||Deferred adjudication available for certain crimes, record may be expunged, destroyed after 3 years. No predicate effect. Md. Code Ann., Crim. Proc. § 6-220; Md. Rule Crim. Proc. 4-511 and 4-512. Jones v. Baltimore City Police Dep't, 606 A.2d 214. |
Expunged record may be opened only upon court order, with notice to the person concerned and a hearing, or upon ex parte application by the State's attorney and a showing of good cause (including that the record is needed by law enforcement). Md. Code Ann., Crim. Proc. §§ 10-108(a) through (c). Violation a misdemeanor. § 10-108(d). Destruction after three years. See §§ 4-511, 4-512.
|Under Second Chance Act of 2015 a handful of minor misdemeanor convictions are eligible for "shielding." Md. Code Ann., Crim. Proc. § 10-301 et seq.,|
Effective Oct. 1, 2017, enumerated misdemeanors may be "expunged" after 10 crime-free years (15 for 2nd degree assault/"domestically related crime"). SB-1005 (2016) (to be codified at Md. Code Ann., Crim. Proc. § 10-110).
Expungement for specified nuisance convictions. Md. Code Ann., Crim. Proc. § 10-105(a)(9), (c)(6). Destruction after 3 years. Md. Rule Crim. Proc. 4-511 and 4-512.
|Non-violent first offenders pardoned may petition for judicial expungement. Md. Code Ann., Crim. Proc. § 10-105(a)(8). DNA records may be expunged under Md. Code Ann., Public Safety § 2-511 (through 2013) or Crim. Proc. § 6-232(a) (beginning in 2014). Destruction after 3 years. Md. Rule Crim. Proc. 4-511 and 4-512.||Expungement for charges transferred to juvenile court per Md. Code Ann., Crim. Proc. §§ 10-105(a)(7), 10-106. Destruction after 3 years. Md. Rule Crim. Proc. 4-511 and 4-512. Juvenile court records are generally unavailable to the public. Md. Code Ann., Courts & Judic. Proc. § 3-8A-27. Records may be completely sealed at any time for good cause, and must be sealed at age 21. Md. Code Ann., Courts & Judic. Proc. § 3-8A-27(c)||Arrest records not leading to charges are automatically expunged, and other non-conviction records (including probation before judgment) may also be expunged upon petition after a waiting period; records may be opened only upon court order. Md. Code Ann., Crim. Proc. §§ 10-103; 10-105(a)(1)-(4), (c)(1)-(2). Destruction after 3 years. Md. Rule Crim. Proc. 4-511 and 4-512.|
|MA||Felonies may be sealed after 10 years if no subsequent conviction (misdemeanors 5 years), but no expungement. May deny conviction in employment application, but no guns, predicate offense. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 276, § 100A; ch. 140, § 122. See also Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 151B, § 4(9) (employers may not inquire into misdemeanor convictions more than 5 years old or arrest records).||Per Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 278, § 18 (2011) ("Continuance Without a Finding"), sealing after 10 years for felonies and five for misdemeanors (Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 6, § 172).||Pardon seals automatically, recipient may deny conviction. May be used as predicate. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 127, § 152.||Records of adjudication may be sealed after 3-year crime-free waiting period. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 276, § 100B.||Non-conviction records may be sealed on order of court; may not be used to disqualify a person from public employment. May deny sealed arrest on private employment application. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 276, § 100C.|
|MI||Set-aside for first felony offenders with no more than two prior misdemeanors; also for two misdemeanors if no felonies. (Traffic & sex offenses excluded). 5-year eligibility period. Record unavailable to public. May be used by law enforcement and certain employment-related uses. Predicate effect. Mich. Comp. Laws § 780.621||Mich. Comp. Laws § 333.7411 (probation before judgment for drug first offenders): nonpublic records kept by state police, available only to law enforcement (including law enforcement employment) and court.||Subject to exceptions, mandatory destruction of diversion records after reaching age 17; all other records at age 30. MCR 3.925(E)(2), (3). Sealing upon petition and finding of good cause. MCR. 8.119(F). Set-aside of up to 3 delinquency adjudications upon meeting certain criteria. Mich. Comp. Law. Ann. § 712A.18e.||Where first offenders found not guilty or charges dismissed "the fingerprints and arrest card shall be destroyed by the official holding those items" after notice by court. Mich. Comp. Laws § 28.243(8), (12)
|MN||Trial court has common law expungement authority; balancing test applied. State v. S.L.H., 755 N.W.2d 271 (Minn. 2008).|
Expungement (sealing) available for all misdemeanors and many minor non-violent felonies. Minn. Stat. §§ 609A.02, subd. 3. Applies to both court and executive branch records.
Sealing of conviction records available for juveniles tried as adults once finally discharged or probation successfully completed (some law enforcement exceptions). Minn. Stat. §§ 609A.02, subd. 2; 609A.03, subd. 7.
Minn. Stat. § 13.87 subdiv. 1(b) conviction data maintained by executive branch is accessible to public for 15 years following discharge.
|Deferred sentencing for felony convictions, treated as misdemeanors following probation. Minn. Stat. § 609.13. Deferred prosecution and expungement for minor drug offenses per Minn. Stat. §§ 152.18, 609A.03.||"Pardon extraordinary" has effect of "setting aside and nullifying" conviction, but does not expunge or seal record. Recipient may deny conviction.||Adjudication records (other than for felony offense at age 16 or older) generally available only to victim, schools, and government agencies for specified purposes and only until age 28. Minn. Stat. § 260B.171. Expungement of juvenile delinquency adjudications available for certain offenses and case dispositions. § 260B.198, subd. 6.||Records must be destroyed upon request if no felony/gross misdemeanor conviction in 10 years prior to dismissal of charge prior to probable cause determination. Immediate destruction if no charges filed, or no indictment returned. Minn. Stat. § 299C.11.
Alternatively, discretionary expungement available under same authority as conviction records; remain available for certain law enforcement and background check purposes. §§ 609A.02, subd. 3; 609A.03, subd. 7.
|MS||Expungement of first offender misdemeanors, some minor felonies, and less-serious youthful felonies. Miss. Code Ann. § 99-19-71. Restores the person's legal status, but employer may inquire about existence of expunction. Id. .Law enforcement retains.||Deferred adjudication followed by dismissal for misdemeanors and certain felonies. § 99-19-26. Expungement "shall" follow successful completion. § 99-19-26(5).||Sealing upon reaching age 20 if case dismissed or set aside; judge has discretion to seal and unseal. Miss. Code Ann. § 43-21-263(2).||Expungement of misdemeanor records not resulting in conviction. Miss. Code Ann. §§ 99-15-59.|
|MO||Effective 1/2018, expungement will be available for misdemeanors and all non-Class A felonies, with exceptions for violent, sex and other serious crimes. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 610.140(2) Waiting period for misdemeanors will be reduced from 10 to 3 years, 7 for felonies. § 610.140(5)(1).||First time alcohol-related misdemeanors, after 10 yrs. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 577.054.||Sealing for suspended & probationary sentences, becomes "non-conviction" record, need not be reported; sealed records remain available for law enforcement & certain licensing. Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 557.011, 610.105-610.110.||Bad check felonies and a few public order misdemeanors may be expunged, but limited effect. § 610.140. See expansion effective 1/2018.||Records generally unavailable to the public. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 211.321.1. Court motion may seal and destroy records after age 17. § 211.321.5. Juvenile driving records may be expunged after two years or upon reaching age 21. § 302.545.||Immediate expungement for nolle pros. if arrest based on false information, most misdemeanor motor vehicle offenses if nolle pros., dismissal, acquittal. § 610.122. Effective 2018, expungement available after 3 years for any misdemeanor, non-Class A felony arrest, with exception for violent, sex, other serious offenses. § 610.140(6).|
|MT||Deferred sentencing for first felony offenders and misdemeanants, after which charges dismissed and access to records limited (but not "expunged" or destroyed). Mont. Code Ann. §§ 46-18-201, 46-18-204.||Effective Oct. 2017, expungement available for all misdemeanors once in a person's lifetime. HB0168 (2017) (to be codified at tit. 6, ch. 18). Record permanently destroyed/deleted/erased.||Automatic sealing of youth court and probation records upon reaching majority. Mont. Code Ann. § 41-5-215'216. May seek court order limiting availability prior to majority. Mont. Privacy Rules § 4.60.||Upon request of individual or order of court, all records in cases not resulting in conviction, or where conviction invalidated must be returned to the subject. Mont. Code Ann. § 44-5-202.|
|NE||Court may set aside conviction for those sentenced to probation, which "nullifies" conviction and removes "all civil disabilities and disqualifications" but does not expunge or seal record. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2264.||Expungement only where an arrest is due to police error. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-3523(3). Limited availability of sealing (no charge, completion of diversion/probation program) upon showing of rehabilitation. § 43-2,108.03; 43-2,108.4. Adjudication treated as if it never occurred.||Automatic sealing of criminal history information. Records not resulting in prosecution may not be disseminated to the public after a period of one year; records where charges were not filed because of completed diversion are not available to the public after two years; and records where charges were filed but later dismissed by the court are removed from the public record immediately. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-3523(3). Expungement also available for arrest records resulting from law enforcement error. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-3523(6).|
|NV||Sealing available after 7-to-15-year waiting period for felonies (depending on offense) and 2-7-year waiting period for misdemeanors, if no subsequent conviction during waiting period. Conviction may be denied (with law enforcement and firearms exceptions). No predicate effect. Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 179.245, 179.285, 179.301.|
Sealing available for more minor offenses (misdemeanors & lesser felonies) under various statutes (e.g., drug offenses per Nev. Rev. Stat. § 453.3365).
|Sealing available for those honorably discharged from probation without waiting period per Nev. Rev. Stat. § 176A.850.|
Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 458.300 authorizes deferred sentencing for persons adjudged an addict or alcoholic; upon successful completion of a treatment program, the conviction may be set-aside and the record sealed.
|Automatic sealing upon reaching age 21 for most offenses. Nev. Rev. Stat. § 62H.140. Earlier sealing upon petition and a hearing after a three-year waiting period. Id. Sealing for certain violent/sex offenses available at age 30. § 62H.150.||Non-conviction records may be sealed at any time after completion of case, may deny arrest. Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 179.255, 179.285.|
|NH||Convictions for most non-violent offenses may be "annulled" after waiting periods of 1 to 10 yrs., if consistent with rehabilitation and public welfare. Annulled records unavailable to the public, and inquiries must be limited; however, record may be given predicate effect. N.H. Rev. Stat. § 651:5.||Records closed and placed into an inactive file upon reaching age 21, with access remaining for law enforcement. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 169-B: 35.||Non-conviction data may be expunged by court subject to "public welfare" standard that applies to convictions; arrest deemed never to have occurred. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 651:5(II).|
|NJ||Expungement for certain first indictable offense after 10 years (waiting period may be reduced to 5 years if "in the public interest"). May deny record except in connection with judicial and law enforcement jobs. N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2C:52-2.|
Sentencing court may issue certificate evidencing rehabilitation that "suspends certain disabilities, forfeitures or bars to employment or professional licensure." N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2A:168A-7.
|Expungement of low-level 1st offender drug offense committed before age 21 after 1 year. § 2C:52-5.||Deferred adjudication and sealing for minor drug offenses after 6-month waiting period. § 2C:36A-1. Drug court records may be expunged under N.J. Stat. § 2C:35-14.||Expungement of up to 3 disorderly persons offenses after 5 years (may be reduced to 3 years if "in public interest"). N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:52-3. 10-year minimum waiting period if person also has a conviction for an indictable offense. § 2C:52-2. May deny record except in connection with judicial and law enforcement jobs. § 2C:52-2.||Pardon makes eligible for expungement. In re L.B., 848 A.2d 899 (N.J. Super. Ct. 2004). May deny record except in connection with judicial and law enforcement jobs.||Expungement available after 2-10 year waiting period, depending on seriousness of offense. N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:52-4.1. Sealing available after 2 years if no subsequent conviction/adjudication, or immediately upon military enlistment. § 2A:4A-62.||Arrest and other non-conviction data may be expunged upon application at the time of disposition; episode deemed never to have occurred. N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:52-6. § 2C:52-1|
|NM||Deferred sentencing (following plea resulting in conviction) available except in first degree felony cases; rights restored but conviction remains. No expungement, and conviction has predicate effect. Does not qualify as "set-aside" for purposes of avoiding federal firearms restrictions. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 31-20-3.|
Conditional discharge without finding of guilt available once in lifetime except in first degree felony case. § 31-20-13. Record not expunged, but rights are not lost. Predicate effect.
Distinct conditional discharge authority for first offender drug possession. § 30-31-28. Expungement available if offense committed while age 18 or younger.
|Records generally confidential. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 32A-2-32. Court must seal records relating to juvenile delinquency petitions after both reaching age 18 (with exceptions) and after 2 year waiting period if no subsequent felony or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude. § 32A-2-26. Treated as though proceeding never took place.||Department of public safety authorized to expunge arrest information relating to misdemeanor or petty misdemeanor offense unless crime of moral turpitude. If final disposition cannot be located, the department "shall expunge the arrest information." N.M. Stat. Ann. § 29-3-8.1(a). Question whether courts have inherent authority to direct expungement is now before the New Mexico Supreme Court.|
|NY||Effective October 2017, all offenses other than sex offenses and class A felonies and violent felonies may be sealed after 10 years. Available for up to two offenses, only one of which may be a felony. N.Y. Crim. Proc. § 160.59.|
Certificate of Relief from Disabilities, N.Y. Correct. Law §§ 700-706, or a Certificate of Good Conduct, §§ 703-a, 703-b, may be obtained to restore rights, at sentencing for first felony offenders not sentenced to prison, or thereafter for all from Parole Board.
|Deferred adjudication includes automatic expungement upon completion unless DA demonstrates "that the interests of justice require otherwise." N.Y. Crim. Proc. Law §§ 160.58, 216.00 et seq. Conditional sealing of certain drug and other specified felony convictions upon completion of a judicially sanctioned "diversion" or drug treatment program.||Up to three prior misdemeanors may be sealed pursuant to conditional sealing authority described in column to left.||Youthful offender pardons: Cuomo program to pardon for crimes committed at age 16 or 17, limits access to criminal history by private employers, landlords, other companies.||Youthful offender adjudication records are generally unavailable to the public. N.Y. Crim. Proc. Law § 720.35(2). Delinquency adjudications for non-felony offenses may be sealed once reaching age 16 upon petition. NY CLS Family Ct Act § 375.2. Delinquency proceedings resolved in juvenile's favor are automatically sealed. § 375.1.||Sealing automatic upon termination of the action in favor of a person (including deferred adjudication), unless the district attorney demonstrates "that the interests of justice require otherwise." N.Y. Crim. Proc. Law §§ 160.50, 160.55.|
|NC||Minor felonies and misdemeanors eligible for judicial Certificate of Relief to remove collateral sanctions; Certificate may be considered favorably in determining whether to disqualify from public employment or licensure. N.C. Gen. Stat.§ 15A-173.2(d).||First offender minor nonviolent felonies & most non-violent misdemeanors eligible for expungement after 15 years. N.C. Gen. Stat.§ 15A-145.5. Waiting period reduced to 5 years for misdemeanors, 10 years felonies, effective Dec. 1, 2017. May deny for most purposes.|
Youthful offenses: First offender nonviolent felonies and misdemeanors committed under age 18 or 21 may be expunged (4 yrs waiting period for felonies, 2 years under 18 misdemeanors & under 21 alcohol misdemeanors). N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 15A-145, 15A-145.4.
Certain gang offenses committed by first offender under age 18 may be expunged. N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 15A-145.1, 14-458.1(c).
|Deferred adjudication for first-time minor drug offenders. No conviction results if probation successfully completed. No predicate effect. Expungement of records only if under 22. N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 90-96(a), 90-113.14(a). |
Deferred adjudication for cyberbullying offenses committed under age 18. May be expunged. N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 15A-145.1, 14-458.1(c).
|Juvenile records generally unavailable to the public. N.C. Gen. St. § 7B-3200(b). May be sealed by court order. § 7B-3200(c). Sealed records may be disclosed by court order. Expungement available upon reaching majority after an 18-month waiting period after demonstrating good behavior and no subsequent convictions.||Where charges are dismissed or the person found not guilty, may apply to the court for expungement if no prior felony convictions, and thereafter may deny conviction. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 15A-146(a).|
|ND||Minor felony conviction (less than one year prison) may be reduced to a misdemeanor after service of sentence. N.D. Cent. Code §§ 12.1-32-02(9) No authority to expunge or seal conviction records.||First offender marijuana possession may be sealed if not subsequently convicted within 2 years. N.D. Cent. Code 19-03.1-23(9).||Deferred imposition of sentence available per N.D. Cent. Code § 12.1-32-02, but no expungement/sealing.||Records generally unavailable to the public. N.D. Cent. Code, § 27-20-51(1); N.D.R. Juv. P. Rule 19(a). May petition for destruction at any time so long as no charges are pending. N.D.R. Juv. P. Rule 19(d). Good cause showing required. Destroyed record treated as if it never existed. N.D. Cent. Code § 27-20-54(2).||Courts have inherent authority to expunge non-conviction records for unlawful arrests, State v. Howe, 308 N.W.2d 743, 749 (N.D. 1981), and to limit public Internet access to electronic non-conviction records if charges dismissed or defendant acquitted, N.D. Sup. Ct. Admin. R. 41(6).|
|OH||Records sealed for one felony and/or up to 2 misdemeanors, after 1-3 yr. waiting period depending on offense if court finds rehabilitation. Certain serious offenses excluded. Applies to federal and out-of-state convictions. May deny conviction w/ some exceptions. Access in law enforcement and licensing contexts. Predicate offense. Ohio Rev, Code Ann. §§ 2953.31 et seq. |
Ohio judges may also issue a "certificate of qualification for employment" that removes automatic sanctions and allows consideration on the merits. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 2953.25.
|Intervention in lieu of conviction available for certain non-serious first offenses; successful completion and abstinence results in not being treated as a conviction. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §2951.041. Sealing available under Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 2953.52.||Courts have no inherent authority to seal record of pardoned conviction. State v. Radcliff (Ohio, 2015).||Sealing of records for delinquency adjudications, except for murder or rape offenses, after 6 months from discharge. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 2151.356. Proceedings deemed never to have occurred.||Sealing for records that did not lead to a conviction, or in which conviction was overturned. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §§ 2953.52, 2953.55. May deny for most purposes. § 2953.55(A).|
|OK||Deferred adjudication and probation leading to expungement (sealing) for misdemeanants and minor felony offenders. 22 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 991c. Misdemeanants also eligible one year after completion of deferred judgment, id. § 18(8). First drug offenders eligible for deferred sentencing and expungement under 63 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 2-410(A). Sealed record may be ordered "obliterated or destroyed" after an additional 10 years.||Misdemeanor with fine under $500 and no prison or suspended sentence may be expunged immediately. 22 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 18(A)(10) (eff. Nov. 2016). Otherwise, misdemeanors expunged after 5 years if no charges pending and no prior felonies. 22 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 18(A)(11).||Non-violent first offenders who have been pardoned may petition for expungement after 10 yrs. No more than two pardoned felonies may be expunged after 20 yrs. (eff. Nov. 2016). Those convicted under age 18 may also petition for expungement after pardon. 22 Okla. Stat. Ann. §§ 18(A)(6), (A)(12), (A)(13).||Expungement eligibility upon reaching age 21 if no subsequent criminal behavior. Record sealed, and destroyed after 10 years if not unsealed. May deny existence of record. Okla. Stat. tit. 10A, § 2-6-109.||Expungement (sealing) of records of acquittals, reversals, innocence, or where charges never filed under 22 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 18(A)(1)-(5). Also available for cases in which charges dismissed under § 18(A)(7), if no prior felonies and time has expired for recharging.|
|OR||Less serious non-violent offenses may be "set aside" after waiting period of 1 to 20 years if no other conviction in past 10 years (or ever, if setting aside Class B felony) or arrest within 3 yrs. Order must issue unless court finds it would not be "in the best interests of justice." Record sealed from public view. May deny conviction, but counts as predicate. Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.225.||Expungement and sealing eligibility for most offenses upon reaching majority. Or. Rev. Stat. § 419A.262(2). 5-year waiting period with no subsequent felony or Class A misdemeanor convictions. § 419A.262(2)(a)-(e). Set-aside available for some offenses not eligible for expungement. § 419C.610.||One year from the date of any arrest, if no accusatory instrument was filed, or at any time after an acquittal or a dismissal of the charge, the arrested person may apply to the court for entry of an order setting aside and sealing the record of such arrest. Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.225(1)(b).|
|PA||Expungement with complete destruction of records available for those over 70 if no arrests for 10 yrs, and 3 yrs after death. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 9122; 234 Pa. Code chs. 4, 7. ||Expungement for probation without verdict (ARD) for non-violent first time drug offenses. 35 Pa. Cons. Stat. §§ 780-117, 780-119.||2nd & 3rd degree misdemeanors and ungraded offenses may be sealed under "order of limited access" after 10 years. Records are unavailable to the public, but remain available to certain state agencies, including licensing boards. 18 Pa.C.S. § 9122.1.|
Expungement available for "summary" offenses after 5 yrs; also for underage drinking. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 9122; 234 Pa. Code chs. 4, 7.
|Pardon basis for judicial expungement. Commonwealth v. C.S., 534 A.2d 1053 (Pa. 1987).||Upon reaching majority, expungement with complete destruction of records available after a five-year waiting period for delinquency adjudications. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. § 9123.||May not be disclosed to public after three years with no subsequent conviction. 18 Cons. Stat. § 9121(b)(2)(i).
Expungement available for non-conviction records where no disposition indicated after 18 months or by court order (includes pre-plea diversion cases after successful completion of probation). 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 9122. Constitutional right to seek judicial expungement of an arrest record, based on balancing test. Comm. v. Armstrong, 434 A.2d 1205 (Pa. 1981). Partial expungement of charges nol prossed also available. Comm. v. Hanna,964 A.2d 923 (Pa. Super. 2009).
|PR||Broad expungement authority for all offenses, including violent felonies, after waiting period of six months to 5 years (felony offenders also must provide DNA sample), if applicant demonstrates "good moral reputation in the community." P.R. Laws Ann. tit. 34, §§ 1725a-1 et seq.||Certificate of rehabilitation available to persons who have not completed prison term if deemed totally rehabilitated, psychological recommendation required, court orders conviction not be included in criminal record certificate but may be used for recidivism purposes. P.R. Laws Ann. tit. 4, § 1611 et seq.||Revoked verdicts may be expunged. P.R. Laws. Tit. 34, § 1725b|
|RI||Expungement for felony first offenders not convicted of specified violent offenses and for individuals with up to 6 misdemeanors 5–10 years after completion of sentence. Allows denial except for certain jobs and licenses. Predicate offense. R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 12-1.3-1 et seq.|
"Certificate of recovery & re-entry" if no more than one non-violent felony conviction relieves petitioner of some collateral consequences. R.I. Gen. Laws § 13-8.2-1.
|Expungement available immediately upon completion of deferred sentence. R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 12-19-19(c); R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 12-1.3-2(e). |
"Filing" complaints must be sealed upon successful completion of one-year probation, three years for domestic violence cases. R.I. Gen. Laws § 12-10-12.
|Automatic sealing, with limited exceptions, upon final disposition of juvenile case. R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 14-1-6.1, 14-1-64(b). Juvenile adjudication can be used for sentencing purposes in adult court and does constitute a conviction for impeachment purposes.||Court sealing of records of persons acquitted or otherwise exonerated (including charges dismissed pursuant to deferred sentencing) if no prior felony convictions. R.I. Gen. Laws § 12-1-12.1.|
|SC||First offense misdemeanors (except traffic offenses) may be expunged if no other conviction within 3 years (5 years for domestic violence cases). S.C. Code Ann. § 22-5-910(A). Expungement requires destruction of record. |
Expungement also available for first fraudulent check offense, first offense resulting in alcohol education program, and first failure to stop for law enforcement signal. §§ 34-11-90(e), 17-22-530(A), 56-5-750(F).
|Deferred adjudication for first-time minor drug offenders. No conviction results and record expunged. S.C. Code Ann. § 44-53-450. |
Non-violent first offenders eligible for pretrial intervention, non-criminal disposition, and expungement. §§ 17-22-10 et seq. No predicate effect.
Certain non-violent offenses committed between 17 & 25 years of age resulting in probation & treatment may be expunged after 5 years if no subsequent conviction. § 22-5-920.
|Expungement available upon majority for status and nonviolent offenses, with certain exceptions for serious crimes and repeat offenders. S.C. Code Ann. § 63-19-2050(A).||If charges dismissed or person found not guilty, all records must be destroyed and "no evidence of such record pertaining to such charge shall be retained by any municipal, county or State law enforcement agency." S.C. Code Ann. § 17-1-40(A)|
|SD||Suspended imposition of sentence for first offenders charged with non-serious felony and misdemeanor offenses; results in no conviction, records sealed. S.D. Codified Laws §§ 23A-27-12.2 through 17.||Effective 2016, arrest and conviction for Class 2 misdemeanors, municipal violations, petty offenses automatically removed from public record after 10 years. S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-3-34. |
Director of the Bureau of Criminal Statistics may authorize destruction of records of misdemeanors ten years after discharge, and records of persons seventy-five years of age or older who have been crime-free for at least ten years. S.D. Codified Laws § 23-6-8.1.
|Pardon seals record automatically where statutory process followed. S.D. Codified Laws § 24-14-11||Sealing upon petition after a waiting period and finding of no subsequent convictions and rehabilitation. S.D. Codified Laws § 26-7A-115.||Records may be expunged upon application after one year if no prosecution; or where no adjudication of guilt, including deferred adjudication, if prosecutor consents. S.D. Codified Laws §§ 23A-27-14 to 23A-27-17. Restores person to pre-arrest status and seals record, but does not destroy record.|
|TN||Certain less serious non-violent felonies and misdemeanors eligible for expungement 5 years after discharge, if no more than 2 convictions, both of which must be eligible; may deny conviction but record remains available to law enforcement. Tenn. Code Ann. § 40-32-101(g), (k).|
Judicial restoration of rights and "certificate of employability" available to all residents, wherever the conviction obtained. §§ 40-29-101, 40-29-107. Certificate limits licensing denials, protects against negligent hiring liability. Tenn. Code Ann. § 40-29-107. (See Chart #5)
|Deferred adjudication for misdemeanor/low-level felony if no prior felony/class A misdemeanor resulting in confinement; results in no conviction, no predicate effect (except subsequent related civil actions), records expunged. Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 40-35-313, 40-32-101(b). |
Misdemeanants and Class D felons who successfully complete diversion probation eligible for expungement under Tenn. Code Ann. § 40-15-102 to 40-15-106.
|Pardon may serve as grounds for expungement and thus restoration of firearms privileges. See Tenn. Code Ann. § 40-32-101(h).||Effective July 2017, mandatory expungement of "misdemeanor"-only records upon petition after one-year waiting period. Tenn. Code Ann. § 37-1-153(f).|
Otherwise, discretionary expungement available at age 17 if one year has passed since most recent adjudication and certain criteria are met. Tenn. Code Ann. § 37-153(f). Records destroyed.
|Court must order "destruction" of records in case of acquittal, or where charges dismissed. Tenn. Code Ann. § 40-32-101(a), (b).
Partial expungement: Conviction records may be redacted to expunge charges not resulting in conviction. See State v. L.W., 350 S.W.3d 911 (2011)
|TX||First-offender misdemeanor sealing available upon petition for "order of non-disclosure." No waiting period applies for fine-only misdemeanors; otherwise 2 years. See Tex. Gov't Code §§ 411.073, 411.0735. First-offender DWI convictions also eligible, 2-5 year waiting period. Tex. Gov’t Code §§ 411.0731, 411.0736. Order of nondisclosure limits public access, but records may be disclosed to law enforcement and certain licensing purposes.||Deferred adjudication available (certain offenses, such as sex and violent offenses, excluded), results in dismissal of charges and no conviction. For first misdemeanors, court must seal records under "order of non-disclosure" upon discharge. Tex. Gov't Code § 411.072; Tex. Code Crim. Proc. art. 42.12. May otherwise be sealed upon petition. Waiting period may apply (2 years for serious misdemeanor; 5 years for felony). Tex. Gov't Code § 411.0725.||Pardon entitles recipient to judicial expungement. Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 55.01(a).||Automatic sealing at age 19 for misdemeanor juvenile adjudications. Tex. Fam. Code § 58.253(b). Discretionary sealing upon petition at age 18 or two years after discharge. § 58.256. Treated as if never occurred and may not be used against person in any manner. §§ 58.261(b), 58.258(c).||"Expunction" of all records may be ordered in cases where an arrest does not result in a conviction, except that only Class C misdemeanants eligible in case of deferred adjudication. Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 55.01(a), art. 55.01(2)(B).|
|UT||All except serious violent offenses may be "expunged" after 3-10 yr waiting period. Order must issue unless court finds it would be "contrary to public interest." May deny conviction but otherwise of uncertain effect. Predicate offense. Utah Code Ann. §§ 77-40-101 et seq.||Pardon entitles person to expungement. Utah Code Ann. § 77-40-105(5).||Expungement after a one-year waiting period upon reaching majority and filing a petition with the court if no adult criminal record. Record available only to court thereafter. Utah Code Ann.§§ 78A-6-1105(1)(a)(i) & (ii), (e).||Person arrested may, at least 30 days after arrest, petition for expungement if no charges filed or charges dismissed, or if acquitted. Utah Code Ann. 77-40-104.|
|VT||Misdemeanors and 3 minor felonies (4 effective July 2018) eligible for expungement after 5 yrs if no further conviction, or for sealing if "better serves the interest of justice." If convicted of misdemeanor during waiting period, 10 year minimum waiting period with no conviction in previous 5 yrs. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, §§ 7601 et seq. Primary difference in two forms of relief is that sealed conviction may be used as predicate; in both cases same official response "no record exists." |
Upon application, court must seal most convictions for crimes committed prior to age 21 two years after final discharge, if "the person's rehabilitation has been attained to the satisfaction of the court." Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 33, §§ 5119(g), 5287(d).
Courts may relieve collateral sanctions at and after sentencing for all but the most serious offenders. 13 V.S.A. § 8001 et seq. (Vermont Uniform Collateral Consequences of Conviction Act.)
|Sealing available under first offender diversion program 2 years after completion of program. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 164.||Deferred sentencing may result in expungement of record, may deny conviction. No predicate effect. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 7041. The only crime specifically excluded by statute is aggravated sexual assault of a child, see § 7041(c), though many are excluded as a matter of policy.||Records generally unavailable to the public. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 33, § 5117. Sealing 2 yrs after discharge unless additional charges pending & rehabilitation not attained. § 5119(a).||Expungement or sealing of non-conviction records if charges not brought or dismissed before trial. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 7603.|
|VI||Deferred adjudication and expungement for non-violent first offenders, and for youthful drug possession. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 19, § 607(b)(1); tit. 5, § 3711(c). Probation and expungement for youthful offenders after 5 yr waiting period. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 5, § 3712.||Expungement of misdemeanor convictions upon petition to court. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 5, § 3734.||Court may vacate and seal juvenile records 2 years after final discharge if no intervening convictions or pending charges. 5 V.I.C. § 2531. Proceedings treated as if they never occurred. Subsequent adjudication or conviction nullifies sealing order.||Records of arrest that do not result in conviction "must be expunged" where case dismissed, acquittal, nolle prossed. Non-conviction records may be expunged by petition in most other cases. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 5, §§ 3732-3733.|
|VA||Deferred Adjudication for certain first time drug offenders, but no expungement. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-251.||Absolute pardon (granted only for innocence) entitles person to judicial expungement. Simple pardon (for forgiveness) does not.||Records generally unavailable to the public. Automatic destruction of records annually if juvenile is at least age 19 and five years have passed since last hearing in any juvenile case, with several exceptions. Va. Code Ann. §§ 16.1-306(A) & 307.||Non-conviction records may be expunged in case of acquittal or where charges nolle prossed or dismissed (except in deferred adjudication cases). Va. Code Ann. § 19.2-392.2. Record may be denied and employers cannot inquire. § 19.2-392.4.|
|WA||All but most serious felonies and misdemeanors may be "vacated" after waiting period of 3 to 10 yrs, depending on offense. "Releases" person "all penalties and disabilities resulting from the offense." May deny conviction. Limited predicate effect. Wash. Rev. Code § 9.94A.640. |
Vacated record may be sealed under General Court Rule 15 if the court determines the need for privacy or safety outweighs the public interest in access.
Certificate of Restoration of Opportunity after 1 to 5 years. Relieves licensing bars; provides protection from negligent hiring/renting. §§ 9.97.010, .020
|After conviction of "any crime," court may suspend or defer sentence, and place defendant on probation; may petition to have record vacated and sealed after probation expired. Wash. Rev. Code §§ 3.66.067, 9.95.200.||Pardon vacates conviction automatically, and seals record. Wash. Rev. Code § 9.94A.030 (11)(b).||Sealing automatic after age 18 (or after release from confinement or supervision) for most offenses if terms of disposition satisfied, unless state objects. Wash. Rev. Code § 13.50.260. Otherwise, available by court order for most offenses after a crime-free waiting period of two to five years depending on the seriousness of the offense. Id.||Non-conviction records in criminal justice agency files may be sealed administratively two years after disposition favorable to defendant. Wash. Rev. Code § 10.97.060.|
|WV||Effective July 2017, qualifying non-violent felony may be reduced to "reduced misdemeanor" at court's discretion after 10 years. W. Va. Code §§ 61-11B-1 to 61-11B-5.||Youthful (18-26) first offender misdemeanor convictions may be expunged after 1 year (violent, domestic violence, DUI, crimes against children excluded). Records sealed, may be opened only on court order to subject or prosecutor. W. Va. Code § 61-11-26.||See first offender column.||Judicial expungement 1 yr. after pardon and 5 years after discharge if good cause (certain exceptions for violent crimes); may not be considered for licensing and teaching. W. Va. Code § 5-1-16a.||Automatic sealing after later of age 19 or one year after termination of jurisdiction unless case is transferred to adult court. W. Va. Code § 49-5-18(a), (f). Treated as though proceedings never occurred.||Court may expunge records (except those held by the DMV) of acquittals, dismissals if person has not previously been convicted of a felony. W.Va. Code § 61-11-25.|
|WI||In sentencing youthful offenders (under 25), court may order misdemeanor and minor first felony convictions expunged upon successful completion of sentence. Wis. Stat. § 973.015. Court records destroyed, but prosecutor may ask that offense conduct be considered in context of new crime. See State v. Leitner, 646 N.W.2d 341, 352 (Wis. 2002)||Deferred prosecution in domestic violence & some sex offense cases authorized by Wis. Stat. § 971.37; upon successful completion of deferral, charges dismissed and no conviction results. No provision for expungement of records.||Expungement upon petition after reaching age 17 and a finding that sentencing requirements have been completed and expungement will benefit offender without harming society. Wis. Stat. § 938.355(4m).||No provision for sealing or expunging non-conviction records. However, fingerprint records returned by law enforcement if person arrested is subsequently released without charge or "cleared of the offense through court proceedings." Wis. Stat. § 165.84(1).|
|WY||Certain less serious felony and misdemeanor convictions may be expunged 10 years after sentence expires if no other felony convictions, and if court finds applicant is not a danger. Violent and sexual offenses, and those involving firearms, ineligible. Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 7-13-1501, 1502. Records sealed but not destroyed. §§ 7-13-1401(j)(1). .||See deferred sentencing column.||Deferred sentencing for first felony offenders and misdemeanants (certain serious crimes excluded); avoids conviction but expungement specifically prohibited. Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 7-13-301 et seq.||Juvenile records are generally unavailable to the public. Wyo. Stat. § 14-6-203. May apply for expungement after reaching majority and presenting evidence of rehabilitation and no subsequent offenses. Violent felonies ineligible. § 14-6-241(a). Proceedings deemed never to have occurred.||Courts may expunge non-conviction records if no charges pending, 180 days after dismissal of proceedings. Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-13-1401.
Records sealed but not destroyed. Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 7-13-1501
|Fed||Deferred adjudication for first misdemeanor drug possession under 18 U.S.C. § 3607(a). See also id. at (c) (expungement available if under 21 years old at time of offense).||Some federal courts assert inherent ancillary authority to expunge if arrest or conviction is invalid or subject of clerical error. United States v. Sumner, 226 F.3d 1005 (9th Cir. 2000). Also DNA expunged if conviction overturned. 10 U.S.C. § 1565(e); 42 U.S.C. § 14132(d).|