50-State Comparison
 State Law Relief from Federal Firearms Act Disabilities

Prepared by Margaret Love for the NACDL Restoration of Rights Project.

This chart illustrates the complex relationship between state and federal law relating to loss and restoration of firearms privileges after conviction.   Under 18 U.S.C. § 922(g), federal firearms privileges are lost upon conviction of a “crime punishable by a imprisonment for a term exceeding one year.”  Under 18 U.S.C. § 921(a)(20), this does not include any conviction that “has been expunged, or set aside or for which a person has been pardoned or has had civil rights restored…unless such pardon, expungement, or restoration of rights expressly provides that the person may not ship, transport, possess, or receive firearms.”  A similar loss and relief scheme is applicable to conviction of “a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence.” See 18 U.S.C. § 921(a)(33)(B).  In general, state offenders who lost civil rights* may avoid federal firearms restrictions if their rights were restored by whatever means, including by operation of law, and if they have no state law firearms disability.  See Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308, 313 (1998).  However, the federal courts have not been entirely consistent in their recognition of particular state law relief mechanisms, or in their interpretation of the “unless” clause.  The one thing that is fairly clear is that federal offenders may avoid federal (and frequently state) firearms restrictions only through a presidential pardon.  See Beecham v. United States, 511 U.S. 368 (1994).

It is important to stress that the information in this chart is solely for educational and informational purposes, and does not constitute legal advice.  While every effort has been made to ensure that the information is correct and current, the law in this area is complex and constantly changing, and readers are cautioned to research and verify it independently at an official source.


Updated: May 2015

Download PDF

StateLoss and Restoration of State Firearms PrivilegesCivil Rights Lost Upon ConvictionHow Lost Civil Rights Are RestoredFederal Firearms Relief under 18 § USC 921(a)(20)State Offenders Under No State Disability who Remain Federally DisabledState Felony Offenders who lose neither state nor federal gun privileges
AlabamaHandgun (“pistol”) privileges only lost upon conviction of violent crime – restoration by pardon. Ala. Code. §§ 13A-11-70(1), 13A-11-72.Vote, jury, office (all three for certain offenses only). Ala. Const. art VIII, § 177; Ala. Code. §§ 12-16-60, 15-22-36.1, 36-2-1.Vote restored to most offenders through expedited restoration process (Ala. Code § 15-22-36.1); other rights (if lost) by pardon.Federal disability relieved only by pardon.State offenders entitled under state law to possess long guns (all) or handguns (non-violent) remain federally disabled unless all civil rights restored. Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998).
AlaskaConcealable weapon privileges lost for 10 years for felony offender (permanent if violent offense), unless conviction set aside or pardoned. Alaska Stat. § 11.61.200(a)(1), (b)(1)-(3). Vote, jury, office. Alaska Stat. §§ 09.20.020, 15.05.030(a), 15.25.030(10), 33.30.241.Vote and jury automatically restored upon discharge. Becoming qualified voter restores right to hold office. Alaska Stat. §§ 09.20.020, 15.05.030(a), 15.25.030(10), 33.30.241.Federal disability relieved when state concealable weapons bar removed for non-person offenses after 10 years.Yes for non-violent, once 10-year period expired.
ArkansasFirearms privileges lost upon felony conviction; regained through expungement or pardon, or through gubernatorial restoration for offenses not involving weapons. Ark Code. Ann. § 5-73-103. Vote (felony), jury (felony), office (certain crimes). Ark. Const. art. III, §§ 1, 2; Ark. Const. art. V, § 9; Ark. Const. art. 51, § 11; Ark. Code Ann. §§ 7-6-102(d), 16-31-102(a)(4).Vote automatic, other rights by pardon (jury) or expungement (office). Ark. Const. art. III, §§ 1, 2; Ark. Const. art. V, § 9; Ark. Const. art. 51, § 11; Ark. Code Ann. §§ 7-6-102(d), 16-31-102(a)(4) Federal disability relieved only by pardon or expungement
ArizonaFirearms privileges lost upon felony conviction; regained through court action for all but “dangerous” offenders or through pardon. Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 13-904(A), (B); 13-905; 13-906. Vote, jury, office. Ariz. Const. art. VII, § 2(C); Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 13-904(A)(1)-(3); 16-101(A)(5); 21-201(3). First offenders regain all rights (except gun rights) upon completion of sentence; recidivists (incl. federal offenders) must petition court. Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 13-905; 13-906; 13-912(B).Court (or governor) must restore civil rights and firearms rights to relieve federal disabilities.
CaliforniaFirearms privileges lost (including violent misdemeanants), regained only through pardon (except for underlying offense involving dangerous weapon), but not set-aside. Cal. Penal §§ 12021, 4852.17Vote (if imprisoned or on parole), jury (for certain offenses), office (for certain offenses). Cal. Const. art. II, § 4; Cal. Const. art. VII, § 8; Cal. Civil Proc. § 203(a)(5); Cal. Gov’t § 1021; Cal. Penal §§ 67, 68, 74, 88, 98.Vote automatic upon release from imprisonment or parole, other rights regained by pardon. Cal. Const. art. II, § 4; Cal. Const. art. VII, § 8; Cal. Civil Proc. § 203(a)(5); Cal. Gov’t § 1021; Cal. Penal §§ 67, 68, 74, 88, 98.Pardon. (State set-aside not sufficient, People v. Frawley, 98 Cal. Rptr.2d 555, 564 (Cal. App. 2000).)
ColoradoFirearms rights lost (for felony convictions) unless pardoned. Col. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-108.Vote and office (while imprisoned or on parole); jury right not lost at all. Col. Const. art. 7, § 10; Col. Rev. Stat. §§ 1-2-103, 18-1.3-401. All rights lost automatically restored upon release from parole. Col. Const. art. 7, § 10; Col. Rev. Stat. §§ 1-2-103, 18-1.3-401. Pardon. Serious misdemeanants who lose no civil rights must also be pardoned.
ConnecticutHandgun privileges lost (felony or serious juvenile offense), restored by pardon (or expungement). Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 29-28(b), 29-32, 29-36f(b), 53a-217(a).Vote and office (for certain offenses, if imprisoned), jury (for felonies). Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 9-46, 51-217(a)(2).Vote and office regained upon release from parole; jury restored seven years after completion of sentence. Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 9-46, 51-217(a)(2). Pardon, expungement, set-aside; State offenders entitled to long guns under state law remain federally disabled (Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998)).
DelawareFirearms privileges lost if felony or crime of violence or drug crime; restored by pardon. Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, §§ 1448, 4364. Non-felony bar lasts only five years. § 1448(d). Vote (felony & certain offenses), jury (felony), office (certain offenses). Del. Const. art II, § 21; art. V, §§ 2, 7; Del. Code Ann. tit. 15, § 1701; tit. 10, § 4509(b)(6).Vote restored after 5 years (certain serious offenders need pardon), jury through pardon, and office not restored through pardon. Del. Const. art II, § 21; art. V, §§ 2, 7; Del. Code Ann. tit. 15, §§ 1701, 6103-05; tit. 10, § 4509(b)(6); tit. 11, § 4364.Pardon
District of ColumbiaFirearms privileges lost for violent and sex offenses; drug and certain other offenses within five years. D.C. Code § 7-2502.03.Vote and office if imprisoned; jury. D.C. Code §§ 1-204.02, 1-1001.02, 11-1906; D.C Mun. Regs. Tit. 3, § 500.3.Vote and office upon release; jury after one year. D.C. Code §§ 1-204.02, 1-1001.02, 11-1906; D.C Mun. Regs. Tit. 3, § 500.3. Pardon; Serious misdemeanants who lose no civil rights must also be pardoned.Yes, for those who went to prison and lost civil rights, and whose crime does not result in loss of firearms rights.
FloridaFirearms privileges lost, restored by restoration or by pardon after 8-year waiting period. Fla. Stat. §§ 790.001(6), 790.23(1).Vote, jury and office. Fla. Const. art. VI, § 4 ; Fla. Stat. Ann. § 944.292(1).Pardon or restoration of rights by executive clemency. Fla. Const. art. VI, § 4 ; Fla. Stat. Ann. § 944.292(1). Pardon specifically restoring gun rights; Serious misdemeanants who lose no civil rights must also be pardoned.
GeorgiaAll firearms privileges for felonies; first offenders may apply for a license 10 years after completion of sentence, five years for deferred adjudication, otherwise by pardon. Ga. Code Ann. §§ 16-11-129, 16-11-131.Vote (certain felonies), jury (felonies), office (certain felonies). Ga. Const. art. II, §§ 1-2 ; Ga. Code Ann. §§ 15-12-60, 15-12-120, 42-9-54.Vote automatic upon completion of sentence, jury and office restored by pardon. Ga. Const. art. II, §§ 1-2 ; Ga. Code Ann. §§ 15-12-60, 15-12-120, 42-9-54. Pardon specifically restoring gun rights. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-131(c).
IdahoFirearms privileges lost only during sentence, except for enumerated violent felonies; those convicted of violent felonies must seek restoration through “expungement, pardon, setting aside the conviction, or other comparable procedure.” Idaho Code Ann. §§ 18-310, 18-3316(4) Vote, jury, office (all if sentenced to prison, including suspended sentence). Idaho Code Ann. § 18-310Restoration upon expiration of sentence. Idaho Code Ann. § 18-310Non-violent felony offenders who lost rights by virtue of prison sentence not subject to federal disabilities. See United States v. Gomez, 911 F.2d 219, 221 (9th Cir. 1990) (Idaho law restores civil rights and does not specifically restrict firearms rights). Yes, for non-violent felony offenders sentenced to prison term (including suspended)
HawaiiFirearms privileges lost (felonies, drug crimes, crimes of violence), restored by pardon if specifically provided. Haw. Rev. Stat. § 134-7 ; Haw. Op. Att’y Gen. 81-12.Vote, jury, office. Haw. Rev. Stat. §§ 831-2, 831-5. 612-4(b)(2). Vote, office restored upon completion of sentence (may vote during parole or probation); jury through pardon. Haw. Rev. Stat. §§ 831-2, 831-5. 612-4(b)(2). Pardon specifically restoring gun rights, set-aside. Haw. Rev. Stat. § 134-7 ; Haw. Op. Att’y Gen. 81-12
IllinoisFirearms privileges lost for felony conviction, may be restored by State Police or court, after 20 years in the case of violent offenses, or by pardon. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/24-1.1(a); 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 65/10(c).Vote (upon imprisonment), office created by state constitution (ex: governor, judge, General Assembly member) upon conviction. Ill. Const. art. III, § 2; 10 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/3-5; 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/5-5-5; 65 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/3.1 10 5(B).** Vote restored upon release; office upon completion of sentence (pardon required for certain elected offices). Ill. Const. art. III, § 2; 10 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/3-5; 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/5-5-5; 65 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/3.1 10 5(B).Pardon, set-aside or expungement, if firearms rights not expressly excluded. No. But see Buchmeier v. United States, 581 F.3d 561 (7th Cir. 2009) (anti-mouse-trapping rule; state notice restoring civil rights but not expressly noting firearms restrictions sufficient to trigger restoration of rights protection under Section 921(a)(20)). 
IndianaHandgun privileges lost (felony and domestic battery), restored by expungement; § 35-38-9-10(b), or pardon and/or state police after 15 years. Ind. Code §§ 35-47-2-1, 35-47-2-3, 35-47-2-20, 35-47-4-7, 11-9-2-4.Vote (if imprisoned), jury (felonies and certain misdemeanors), office (felonies). Ind. Const. art. 2, § 8; Ind. Code §§ 3-7-13-4, 3-8-1-5(c)(3), 33-28-5-18, 35-50-5-1.1(a).Vote restored upon release; jury upon completion of sentence, office by pardon. Ind. Const. art. 2, § 8; Ind. Code §§ 3-7-13-4, 3-8-1-5(c)(3), 33-28-5-18, 35-50-5-1.1(a).Expungement restores gun rights; Pardon specifically restoring gun rights. Ind. Code § 35-47-2-20.State offenders entitled to long guns under state law remain federally disabled. (Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998))
IowaFirearms privileges lost, may be restored by pardon, specific restoration from governor, or expungement after five years (forcible and firearms offenses only by pardon). Iowa Code §§ 724.26, 724.8, 724.15, 724.27, 914.7.Vote, office (both for infamous crimes). Iowa Const. art. II, § 5; Iowa Code § 48A.30(d).**Vote, office by pardon or gubernatorial restoration of rights upon completion of sentence. Iowa Const. art. II, § 5; Iowa Code §§ 48A.30(d), 914.2.Pardon or restoration of rights, if firearms not expressly excluded; set-aside. Some misdemeanants may also be subject. Iowa Code §§ 724.26, 724.8, 724.15, 724.27, 914.7.
KansasAll firearms privileges for a “person felony” or drug offense, if a firearm was carried at the time of offense; 5-year or 10-yr restriction for other person felonies; 10-yr restriction for non-person felonies involving firearm. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6304. Vote, jury, office. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6613(a).All three restored automatically upon completion of sentence. Kan. Stat. Ann. §§ 21-6613(b), 22-3722. Federal bar avoided when state firearms rights restored after passage of time, or by pardon (not expungement). United States v. Burns, 934 F.2d 1157 (10th Cir. 1991).Yes, for those no longer subject to state gun disabilities.
KentuckyFirearms privileges lost for any felony unless pardoned. (Pre-1994 convictions: handguns only). Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 527.040(1).Vote (incl. treason, bribery, & high misdemeanors), jury (felonies only), office (incl. high misdemeanors). Ky. Const. §§ 145(1)-(2), 150; Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 27A.070, 29A.080. Pardon or gubernatorial restoration of rights. Ky. Const. §§ 145(1)-(2), 150; Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 27A.070, 29A.080. Pardon. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 527.040(1).
LouisianaFirearms privileges only lost for crime of violence, drug felony, sex offenses, restored automatically for ten years after completion of sentence, or earlier by pardon. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 14:95.1(C). Concealed handguns separately regulated. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(C)(10). Vote (if sentence to imprisonment), jury, office. La. Const. art. I, § 10; La. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 401(A)(5).Vote upon release from supervision, office upon completion of sentence or after 15 years, jury by pardon. La. Const. art. I, §§ 10, 20; La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 15:572(D); La. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 401(A)(5). Pardon, set-aside (La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 14:95.1(C)), or passage of time (10 yrs). Some misdemeanants may also be subject. Federal authorities do not recognize state First Offender Pardon. Separate bar on concealed weapons may preclude federal restoration under Caron v. U.S.
MaineFirearms privileges upon conviction of felony. After five years, a permit to carry any weapon not within definition of “firearms” under 18 U.S.C. § 921(a)(3). Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 15, § 393.No rights lostN/APardonPartial restoration means no guns unless pardoned
MarylandFirearms privileges lost for felony conviction, crime of violence, or misdemeanors carrying 2+ years sentence, restored by pardon. Md. Code Ann., Public Safety §§ 5-101(c), 5-133(b). Vote, office, jury only if sentenced to more than six months imprisonment. Md. Const. art I, §§ 4, 12; Md. Code Ann., Election Law § 3-102(b); Md. Code Ann., Courts & Judic. Proc. § 8-103(b)(4).Vote and office upon completion of sentence; jury by pardon. Md. Const. art I, §§ 4, 12; Md. Code Ann., Election Law § 3-102(b); Md. Code Ann., Courts & Judic. Proc. § 8-103(c).Pardon, set-aside
MassachusettsHandguns privileges lost permanently for felonies and serious misdemeanors; long gun privileges restored five years after conviction or release, except to drug and violent offenders. Pardon necessary to relieve handgun restrictions. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, §§ 122, 129B(1), 131(d)(i).Vote (if imprisoned), jury (within seven years). Mass. Const. Amend. Art. 3; Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 234A, § 4(7)Vote restored upon release, jury right seven years after completion of sentence. Mass. Const. Amend. Art. 3; Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 234A, § 4(7)Pardon necessary as long as individual subject to any state law gun restrictions. See Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998).State offenders entitled to long guns under state law remain federally disabled. See Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998).
MichiganFirearms privileges lost (for felonies) for three years after completion of sentence, five years for specified violent or drug offenses (plus county restoration). Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 28.424, 750.224f. Vote (if imprisoned), jury, office (some offenses). Mich. Const. art. 2, § 2; art. 4, § 7; Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 168.758b, 600.1307a, 750.118.Vote restored upon release, jury only with pardon or expungement (first offenders), office disqualifications vary. Mich. Const. art. 2, § 2; art. 4, § 7; Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 168.758b, 600.1307a, 750.118. Pardon or expungement (first offender set-aside), or passage of time (3-5 years). Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.224f(4). State offenders who have regained gun rights under state law remain federally disabled.
MinnesotaFirearms privileges lost upon felony conviction restored upon completion of sentence unless crime of violence (defined to include drug crimes and many theft and burglary offenses), in which case court may restore upon petition. Minn. Stat. §§ 609.165, 624.712-624.713. Vote (treason or felony), jury, office. Minn. Const. art. VII, § 1; Minn. Stat. § 609.42.Restoration of all rights upon expiration of sentence (except bribery conviction permanently disqualified from public office) Minn. Const. art. VII, § 1; Minn. Stat. §§ 609.42, 609.165.Pardon or set-aside. Felony offenders convicted of nonviolent crime or whose gun rights restored by court not subject to federal disabilities. Cf. United States v. Collins, 321 F.3d 691 (8th Cir. 2003) (defendant subject to federal disabilities because subject to state gun restriction after restoration of civil rights).Yes, for nonviolent crimes.
MississippiFirearms privileges lost upon conviction of felony unless pardoned or granted a “certificate of rehabilitation” by a court. Miss. Code Ann. § 97-37-5.Vote, jury, office (all for certain offenses only). Miss. Const. art 4., § 44; art. 5, § 124; art. 12, §§ 241, 253. Miss. Code Ann. §§ 13-5-1, 1-3-19, 99-19-35.If lost, rights to vote and hold office restored by pardon; jury right restored after 5 years. Miss. Const. art 4., § 44; art. 5, § 124; art. 12, §§ 241, 253. Miss. Code Ann. §§ 13-5-1, 1-3-19, 99-19-35.Pardon only means of relief from federal disabilities for those who lost civil rights; for those who lost no civil rights, certificate of rehabilitation. State offenders who have regained gun rights under state law probably remain federally disabled, since certificate of rehabilitation does not restore civil rights.
MissouriFirearms privileges lost (except antique weapons) unless pardoned. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.070.Vote, jury, office. Mo. Const. art. VIII, § 2; Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 115.133, 494.425, 561.021-561.026.Vote and office restored upon completion of sentence; jury by pardon. Mo. Const. art. VIII, § 2; Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 115.133, 494.425, 561.021-561.026.Pardon or expungement provides relief from federal disabilities.
MontanaFirearms privileges lost if conviction involves use of dangerous weapon; may be regained through application to court. Mont. Code Ann. §§ 45-8-313, 45-8-314, 45-8-321.Vote, jury, office. Mont. Const. art. II, § 28; art. IV, §§ 2, 4; Mont. Code Ann. §§ 3-15-303, 46-18-801.All rights restored upon termination of supervision. Mont. Const. art. II, § 28; art. IV, §§ 2, 4; Mont. Code Ann. §§ 3-15-303, 46-18-801.No exposure for felony offenders unless offense involves use of dangerous weapon, and court has not authorized permit.Yes, except for offenders convicted of offense involving use of dangerous weapon.
NebraskaFirearms privileges lost, restored by governor with authority from Pardon Board, or by set-aside. Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 28-1206, 83-1,130(2). Vote, jury, office. Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 29-112, 29-112.01, 29-2264.Vote restored two years after completion of sentence; other rights through warrant of discharge from Pardon Board. Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 29-112, 29-112.01, 29-2264.Restoration procedure administered by Pardon Board, governor; set-aside.
NevadaAll firearms privileges lost for any felony; restored by application to the sentencing court, the Board of Parole Commissioners, or Board of Pardons. Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 202.360, 213.090Vote, jury, office (all three for treason or felonies). Nev. Const. art. 2, § 1; art. 15, § 3First offenders w/ less serious offenses may regain all three rights automatically (office and criminal jury: wait four and six years); serious offenders and recidivists most apply to court or Board of Pardons. Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 213.090, 213.155, 213.157, 176A.850. Pardon or court restoration. Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 203.360, 213.090
New HampshireFirearms privileges lost upon conviction of felony against “person or property of another” and felony drug offenses; non-violent crimes may be restored by court (annulment), all by pardon. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 4:23, 159:3, 651:5.Vote (if incarcerated), office. N.H. Rev. Stat. § 607-A:2, N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 500-A:7-a(V).**Vote restored upon release from prison, office upon completion of sentence. N.H. Rev. Stat. § 607-A:2. Jury upon annulment. N.H. Rev. Stat. § 500-A:7-a(V).Pardon or Annulment. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 4:23, 651:5.
New JerseyFirearms privileges lost by violent offenders; handguns prohibited to all convicted of crimes or domestic violence offenses; restored by pardon or gubernatorial restoration. N.J. Const. art. V, § 2; N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2C:39-7, 2C:58-3, 2C:58-4. Vote & jury (excluding petty offenses), office. N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2A:167-5, 2B:20-1, 2C:1-4, 2C:51-2, 2C:51-3, 19:4-1. Vote restored upon completion of sentence (election law offense requires pardon); jury and office by pardon. N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2A:167-5, 19:4-1.PardonNon-violent state offenders who did not lose gun rights under state law remain federally disabled..
New MexicoFirearms privileges lost, restored automatically ten years following the conviction, or by earlier pardon. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 30-7-16.Vote (incl. “infamous” crimes), jury, office (incl. infamous crimes). N.M. Const. art. VII, §§ 1-2; N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 31-13-1, 38-5-1.Vote and jury restored upon completion of sentence; office with gubernatorial restoration of rights or pardon. N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 31-13-1, 38-5-1.Notwithstanding earlier restoration of gun rights under state law, felony offenders can avoid federal law only through pardon. No. State offenders who regained gun rights after 10 years under state law may remain federally disabled because rights not fully restored.
New YorkFirearms privileges lost; may be expressly restored by pardon or Certificate of Good Conduct. N.Y. Penal Law §§ 400.00(1)(c), 265.01(4); N.Y. Correct. Law §§ 700(1)(a), 701(1). Vote (if incarcerated), jury, office. N.Y. Elec. Law § 5-106; N.Y. Jud. Law § 510(3); N.Y. Pub. Off. Law § 30(1)(e).Vote restored upon expiration of sentence or release from parole, other rights restored by pardon or certificate of relief from disabilities. N.Y. Elec. Law § 5-106; N.Y. Jud. Law § 510(3); N.Y. Pub. Off. Law § 30(1)(e); N.Y. Correct. Law §§ 700-706.Pardon, or if firearms rights expressly restored by certificate. N.Y. Correct. Law §§ 700(1)(a), 701(1).
North CarolinaFirearms privileges lost (certain antitrust/trade offenses excepted); restored by pardon; Nonviolent first offenders may petition court 20 years after rights restored. N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 14-415.1, 14-415.4. See also Britt v. State, 681 S.E.2d 320 (N.C. 2009).Vote, jury, office. N.C. Const. art. VI, §§ 2(3), 8; N.C. Gen. Stat. § 9-3.All rights restored upon termination of supervision. N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 13-1, 13-2. Pardon. Britt court order only means of relief from federal disabilities, see United States v. McLean, 904 F.2d 216 (4th Cir. 1990) (federal firearms restrictions apply, even if citizenship rights restored, due to NC law restricting firearms for certain time period).
North DakotaFirearms privileges lost for five years after sentence or release discharge in case of nonviolent felonies and violent misdemeanors; for 10 years in case of violent felonies. Pardon restores earlier if expressly stated. N.D. Cent. Code § 62.1-02-01.Vote, jury, office (all only during actual incarceration). N.D. Cent. Code §§ 12.1-33-01, 12.1-33-03, 27-09.1-08 All rights restored upon release. N.D. Cent. Code §§ 12.1-33-01, 12.1-33-03, 27-09.1-08. Felony offenders who lost civil rights because sentenced to prison, and who are no longer under state gun bar are not federally disabled. Those not sentenced to prison who lost no rights cannot qualify under “restoration of rights” provision. See U.S. v. Logan, 522 U.S. 23 (2007). Felony offenders not sentenced to prison who lost no civil rights remain federal disabled even after regaining state gun rights.Those who lost and regained civil rights and are no longer subject to state gun disabilities.
OhioFirearms privileges lost if convicted of a violent felony or any drug offense; relief available from court. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §§ 2923.125, 2923.13, 2923.14.Vote (while incarcerated), jury, office. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §§ 2961.01, 2967.16Vote restored upon release, jury and office upon completion of sentence.Non-violent felony offenders or those relieved by court from firearms disabilities are not federally disabled if sentenced to prison. See United States v. Cassidy, 899 F.2d 543, 549 (6th Cir. 1990) (federal restriction applied after restoration of civil rights because defendant still restricted under Ohio law from possessing firearm). Others by pardon. Yes, for those not subject to state gun disabilities.
OklahomaConcealable firearms barred for felony offenders, restoration by pardon only for non-violent offenders. 21 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 1283. Vote, jury, office (incl. misdemeanor embezzlement offenses). Okla. Const. art. V, § 18; 26 Okla. Stat. Ann. §§ 4-101, 5-105a; 21 Okla. Stat. Ann. §§ 312, 1283; 38 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 28(C)(5).Vote restored on discharge, jury after pardon, office 15 years after discharge or pardon. Okla. Const. art. V, § 18; 26 Okla. Stat. Ann. §§ 4-101, 5-105a; 21 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 312; 38 Okla. Stat. Ann. § 28(C)(5).Gun rights restored by pardon for non-violent offenders, set-asideState offenders permitted to possess long guns under state law remain federally disabled. (Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998)).
OregonFirearms privileges lost, restored automatically to certain first offenders after 15 years; restoration by court to non-violent offenders with one-year waiting period, juveniles after 4 years; otherwise by pardon. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.270, 166.274. Vote, jury, office (all only while incarcerated). Or. Const. art. IV, § 8(4); Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.281.All rights restored upon release or set-aside. Or. Const. art. IV, § 8(4); Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.281.Certain first felony offenders who lost rights by sentence to imprisonment are not federally disabled after 15 years; others restored by court, pardon or set-aside. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.270, 166.274. Yes, for first offenders who lost civil rights, after 15 years or earlier restoration by court.
PennsylvaniaFirearms privileges lost for violent and drug offenses, repeat DUI; restoration by pardon, vacated conviction, or by court after 10 years. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. §§ 6105, 6105.1.Vote (while incarcerated), jury, office. Pa. Const. art. II, § 7; art. IV, § 9(a); 25 Pa. Cons. Stat. §§ 2602, 3146.1; 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 4502; 37 Pa. Code ch. 81. Vote upon release, jury and office by pardon. Pa. Const. art. II, § 7; art. IV, § 9(a); 25 Pa. Cons. Stat. §§ 2602, 3146.1; 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 4502; 37 Pa. Code ch. 81. Pardon or set-aside.State offenders who did not lose guns rights under state law or who regained them by court order remain federally disabled unless conviction pardoned, set aside or expunged.
Puerto RicoFirearms privileges lost; restored through pardon or judicial expungement (“elimination”). P.R. Laws Ann. tit. 25, § 456j; tit. 34, § 1725a-1 et seq.; P.R. Const. art. IV, § 4.Vote, jury, office. P.R. Const. art. II, § 12.All restored upon release. P.R. Const. art. II, § 12.Pardon or expungement.
Rhode IslandFirearms privileges lost only for “crime of violence;” felony domestic violence restored automatically after two years; otherwise restored by pardon. R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-5.Vote (while incarcerated), jury, office (incl. misdemeanors). R.I. Const. art. II, § 1; art. III, § 2; art. IX, § 13; R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 9-9-1.1(c), 13-10-1.Vote upon release, jury upon completion of sentence, office 3 years after completion of sentence or earlier pardon. R.I. Const. art. II, § 1; art. III, § 2; art. IX, § 13; R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 9-9-1.1(c), 13-10-1.Non-violent felony offenders, or DV offenders after two years, if they lost all rights not federally disabled; others by expungement or set-aside.Yes, for non-violent offenders who served prison sentence and are not subject to state law firearms disabilities; felony DV offenders after two years.
South CarolinaHandgun privileges lost for crime of violence (including serious drug trafficking), restored by pardon. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-30. Vote (incl. election offenses) and office (both while incarcerated), jury. S.C. Const. art. XVII, § 1; S.C. Code Ann. §§ 7-5-120(B), 16-13-210, 14-7-810, 24-21-920, 24-21-990. Vote and office upon release (office after embezzlement by General Assembly vote) or by pardon, jury by pardon. S.C. Const. art. XVII, § 1; S.C. Code Ann. §§ 7-5-120(B), 16-13-210, 14-7-810, 24-21-920, 24-21-990.Pardon.All state offenders entitled under state law to long guns (Caron v. United States, 524 U.S. 308 (1998)), and non-violent state offenders entitled to handguns, remain federally disabled.
South DakotaFirearms privileges lost if convicted of “crime of violence” or serious drug felony, restored automatically after 15 years if no similar conviction; earlier by pardon. S.D. Codified Laws §§ 22-14-15, 24-14-12.Vote, jury, office (all while incarcerated). S.D. Const. art. 3, § 3; S.D. Codified Laws §§ 16-13-10, 23A-27-35, 24-5-2, 24-15A-7.All rights restored upon release. S.D. Const. art. 3, § 3; S.D. Codified Laws §§ 16-13-10, 23A-27-35, 24-5-2, 24-15A-7.Violent and drug offenders who lost rights by virtue of prison sentence after 15 years are not federally disabled; others by pardon, set-aside.Yes, violent and drug offenders who lost rights by virtue of prison sentence after 15 years.
TennesseeHandgun privileges lost to all felony offenders, may be restored by court order to all but violent or drug offenders, who also lose long gun rights. Violent and drug offenders regain through pardon only. Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 39-17-1307, 39-17-1316. See also Blackwell v. Haslam, 2012 Tenn. App. LEXIS 23 (Tenn. Ct. App. 2012).Vote, jury, office. Tenn. Const. art. I, § 5; Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 8-18-101, 22-1-102, 40-29-101 et seq., 40-29-201 et seq.Vote (upon completion of sentence, but most serious offenses only by pardon), jury and office by court order or pardon. Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 8-18-101, 22-1-102, 40-29-101 et seq., 40-29-201 et seq.Pardon, expungement or set-aside relives federal disabilities as long as state law disabilities are not expressly reserved.
TexasFirearms privileges restored five years after release from supervision, but only for possession at home. Tex. Penal Code § 46.04. Vote, jury, office (certain offenses). Tex. Const. art. 6, § 1; art. 16, § 5; Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. §§ 62.102, 406.018; Tex. Elec. Code Ann. § 11.002; Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 48.05(a). Vote (upon completion of sentence), jury and office by pardon. Tex. Const. art. 6, § 1; Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 62.102; Tex. Elec. Code Ann. § 11.002; Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 48.05(a).Pardon, set-aside.All state offenders entitled under state law to possess guns at home remain federally disabled absent pardon or set-aside.
UtahFirearms privileges lost, regained by court (expungement) or pardon. Most violent offenses ineligible for expungement. Utah Code Ann. § 76-10-503.Vote, jury, office. Utah Code Ann. §§ 20A-2-101, 78B-1-105, 77-5-1, 77-6-1.Vote upon parole/probation or release from prison, jury upon expungement, office upon expungement or after 10 years. Utah Code Ann. §§ 20A-2-101 et seq., 78B-1-105.Expungement or pardon.
VermontFirearms privileges not lost except by court order. State v. Kasper, 566 A.2d 982 (Vt. 1989).Jury (only those sentenced to prison). Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 4, § 962(a)(5); tit. 12, § 64; tit. 28, § 807.** Pardon. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 4, § 962(a)(5); tit. 12, § 64; tit. 28, § 807.Pardon, set-aside. State offenders entitled under state law to possess guns remain federally disabled b/ jury right.
Virgin IslandsFirearms privileges lost, regained by pardon.. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 23, § 456a Vote, jury, office. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 14, § 91; tit. 4, § 471(1).Vote and office restored upon release, jury upon pardon. V.I. Code Ann. tit. 14, § 91; tit. 4, § 471(1).Pardon or expungement.
VirginiaFirearms privileges lost upon conviction of felony (or if adjudicated delinquent based on certain serious offenses), restored by pardon or by court if other rights previously restored. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.2. Separate bar on concealed weapons applies to some misdemeanants. See Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.09.    Vote, jury, office. Va. Const. art. II, § 1; Va. Code Ann. § 8.01-338.Gubernatorial restoration of rights. Va. Const. art. V, § 12; Va. Code Ann. § 53.1-231.2.Pardon or restoration of rights.State offenders need both governor’s restoration and court order to avoid federal bar.Separate bar on concealed weapons may preclude federal restoration for some offenses.
WashingtonFirearms privileges lost on conviction of violent, drug or sex offense, including misdemeanants, but not those sentenced to probation. Restoration for less serious offenses by court order after a waiting period. Wash. Rev. Ann. §§ 9.41.010 et seq.Vote, jury, office. Wash. Rev. Code §§ 29A.04.079, 42.04.020, 2.36.070(5).All rights restored by certificate of discharge upon completion of sentence, or by pardon. Wash. Rev. Code §§ 9.94A.637, 9.94A.885, 9.92.066, 9.96.020, 29.08.520. Pardon, annulment, or other equivalent procedure based on a finding of the rehabilitation relieves federal disabilities. See Yes, if state firearms rights not lost.
West VirginiaFirearms privileges lost by felony offenders (and domestic violence misdemeanors); restored by court except for violent, drug and sex offenses, whose convictions must be pardoned or expunged. W. Va. Code §§ 61-7-7. Vote, jury, office. W. Va. Const. art. IV, § 1; W. Va. Code §§ 6-5-5, 52-1-8.Vote and office restored upon completion of sentence; jury rights not restored so that WV offenders cannot invoke “restoration of rights” provision of 921(a)(20). U.S. v. Morrell, 61 F.3d 279 (4th Cir. 1995)Pardon or expungement under W. Va. Code § 61-7-7(d).
WisconsinFirearms privileges lost by felony offenders; regained by pardon. Wis. Stat. § 941.29.Vote and jury (both certain offenses), office. Wis. Const. art. XIII, § 3; Wis. Stat. §§ 304.078, 111.335, 941.29.Vote and jury restored upon completion of sentence; office only through pardon. Wis. Const. art. XIII, § 3; Wis. Stat. §§ 304.078, 111.335, 941.29.Pardon. Wis. Stat. § 941.29.
WyomingFirearms privileges lost by those convicted of “violent felony” or drug offense unless pardoned. Wyo. Stat. §§ 6-8-102, 6-8-104. Handgun privileges lost for limited periods for violent and drug misdemeanors, restored only through expungement. Vote, jury, office. Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 6-10-106, 1-11-102.Pardon or gubernatorial restoration of rights (voting for first offenders restorable by applying for certificate from parole board). Wyo. Const. art. 4, § 5; Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 6-10-106(a), 7-13-105. PardonState offenders entitled under state law to possess guns remain federally disabled; expungement may not be effective for misdemeanants subject to federal bar, See Wyoming ex re. Crank v. United States, 539 F.3d 1236, 1239 (10th Cir. 2008).
FederalFirearms privileges lost for felony conviction or misdemeanor punishable by two years or more, 18 U.S.C. § 922(g)(1), or misdemeanor crime off domestic violence. Id. § 922(g)(9). Depends on state law, federal jury service lost upon conviction of crime punishable by more than 1 year if not restored (28 U.S.C. § 1865(b)(5)), prohibited from certain federal offices per statute (e.g., 18 U.S.C. § 201(b)). Depends on state law, or pardonPardon

Download PDF


* Convictions that do not result in the loss of any civil rights under state law, such as most misdemeanor convictions, may not satisfy the “civil rights restored” standard,  See United States v. Logan, 522 U.S. 23 (2007).